Great Books

I. Treasures by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn:The Gulag Archipelago

    1. The Gulag Archipelago (1918-1956) — An Experiment in Literary Investigation. 1973. This volume contains Parts I-II, The Prison Industry and Perpetual Motion. The first 660 pages of the English translation. Nonfiction. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, NY. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney.

    2. The Gulag Archipelago (1918-1956) — An Experiment in Literary Investigation. 1975. This volume contains Parts III-IV, The Destructive Labor Camps and The Soul and Barbed Wire. The final 712 pages of the English translation. Nonfiction. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, NY. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney.

These volumes of The Gulag Archipelago are perhaps the best books, the most honest political testament, and the most poignant condemnation of a brutal political system that has ever been or that will ever be written. These are absolutely must-read volumes for anyone who prefers freedom over slavery.

    3. The Oak and the Calf. 1980 edition. Franklin Library. Memoirs/Nonfiction, 550 pages. Translated by H.T. Willets. This memoir relates an incredible journey of a courageous man who would place his life and liberty on the line in the pursuit of freedom of publication in a totalitarian state. Another must-read volume from an indomitable, irrepressible man.

     4. The First Circle. 1968. Historic novel. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney.

   November 1916 5. One Day In The Life of Ivan Denisovich. 1963. Fiction.

   6. Cancer Ward. 1969. Historic novel.

    7. August 1914. (The Red Wheel I) 1971. Historic novel. Translated by Michael Glenny.

   8. November 1916 (The Red Wheel II). 1999. Historic novel. Translated by H.T. Willets. (This volume includes Solzhenitsyn's famous "Lenin in Zurich" essay.)

The two volumes above, The Red Wheels I and II saga, show Solzhenitsyn as a magnificent writer of historic, epic, "fiction" novels. It is a loss to the world that the The Red Wheel III about the Russian Revolution (October 1917) has not been translated from its Russian original into any other language to my knowledge.

   9. I take poetic license in adding under this treasure trove, Michael Scammell's authoritative biography entitled Solzhenitsyn. 1984. Biography, nonfiction.

   
II. Historic Novels by Gore Vidal:


    1. Julian. 1981. Franklin Library edition. Historic novel. This is truly a magnificent and priceless leather edition with 22-karat gold embossing of cover and spine, gild edges on all page surfaces and raised spine. As such this tome is immensely fit to contain within its covers a historic novel of epic proportions. This is without a doubt absolutely one of the best books I have ever read and possess in my library. As far as the narrative, although categorized properly as a historic novel, this tome is for the most part an accurate portrayal of the life and times of Roman Emperor Julian II, surnamed "the Apostate" to some, "the Philosopher" to others. A nephew of Constantine the Great, Julian was raised a Christian, but as a philosophy student in Athens, he studied NeoPlatonism and was initiated in the secret rites of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Thus, in religious devotion, Julian gradually reverted to the ancient rites of paganism and rejected Christianity. Emperor Constantius II, needing a loyal general in the Western provinces, Julian was ordered by the Emperor to leave Athens, where he was studying, become a commander, field armies, and secure the frontier against barbarian invaders. Victorious, time and again, and devoted to his legions, Julian was proclaimed "Imperator" by his troops, and upon the death of his cousin, Constantius, he assumed the purple.

The portrayal of Julian by Vidal is that of a scholarly, serious and studious young man, later a very competent general, and finally a humane and conscientious ruler. As emperor, Julian tried to turn back the clock, debated with theologians, wrote treatises against Christianity, and attempted unsuccessfully to revert the Roman state to paganism. Most dramatic and mesmerizing, though, is Julian's ill-fated invasion of the Sassanian (Persian) Empire against King Shapur II in A.D. 363, a trying and desperate campaign in which Julian lost his life under mysterious circumstances. Controversial is Gore Vidal's thesis that Julian's death was the result of a conspiracy involving his Christian generals, including the future Emperors Jovian and Valentinian I. This novel is recommended to history buffs, scholars of antiquity, as well as to writing initiates and even published authors, as an instructive literary masterpiece.

    2. Burr. 1973. Franklin Library edition. Historic novel. This is the second best book by Gore Vidal. Although categorized as a historic novel it is for the most part an accurate portrayal of the life and times of Aaron Burr.

1876 by Gore Vidal    3. 1876. Historic novel. 1976. This is an absorbing novel with two of the most endearing characters in American fiction, Mr. Charlie Schuyler and his beautiful daughter, Emma. We learn a lot about newspaper editors, publishers, and politicians of the time in this novel. One must keep in mind while most of the episodes relating to historic persons and events are nonfiction, the main characters are not. Moreover, the politics of the time are viewed from the perspective and prism of a very politically liberal writer, who frequently assumes a very controversial persona, and at times Vidal cannot completely keep his politics from influencing the character and coloring the perception of the fascinating history he writes.

For example, Vidal views conservative, post-Reconstruction era, traditionalist America during this period through his liberal political prism, detecting only corruption and cynicism in American politics and ignoring her greatness. He fails to see a vibrant, expanding nation, the great American Republic that she has become, not only fulfilling the expansion of Manifest Destiny, but also setting ablaze a path for the pursuit of freedom, not only in America but also throughout the globe, even if for the rest of the world, freedom, for a century or longer, would remain only a cherished idea. Vidal’s 1876, nevertheless, is a highly entertaining and captivating read. As a literary piece, this historic novel with its enthralling, even lovable characters, fictional and otherwise, is highly recommended if considered with this friendly caveats.

    4. Empire. 1987. Historic novel. This is another masterful, epic historic novel by Gore Vidal, taking place about the time the U.S. was becoming a prosperous nation and world power under William McKinley. In this tome, the descendants of Charlie Schuyler of 1876 continue the American saga of expansion and empire-building and the promotion of free-market capitalism, amidst the growth of influential periodicals, as well as tendentious, mass-produced “yellow journalism.” Some of main characters in this novel are historic and they come out vividly alive out of the pages of this novel. Rugged individualism, particularly cultivated in the West, goes hand in glove with American refinement in the East.

We meet and are delighted with the dialogue and actions of such historic figures as Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt; William Jennings Bryan and William Randolph Hearst; the mysterious "Five Hearts": John Hay and his wife, Henry Adams and his wife, and the strange and elusive geologist Clarence King; and then there is the novelist and intellectual, Henry James, the dear friend of the Five Hearts. Even the Astors and the Vanderbilts come into the picture. The final fictitious but heated, vocal, personal and political exchange between William Randolph Hearst, the inventor of "yellow journalism," and Teddy Roosevelt, the maverick Republican President, is a memorable encounter and probably a fairly accurate representation of what may have transpired (in a conversation that actually took place), as reflected in the characters of two of men who dominated this exciting era.


IV. Biographies:

    1. The Life of Samuel Johnson including a Journal of His Tour to the Hebrides by James Boswell. 1835. 10-volumes. Probably the most sympathetic and complete biography ever published.

    2. John Adams by David McCullough. 2001. This biography restored John Adams to the pedestal where he belonged as one of the giants of our Founding Fathers. 

    3. Alexander Hamilton, A Life by Willard Sterne Randall. 2003. This is the best biography I have read on Alexander Hamilton and an absolutely must read.

    4. Alexander Hamilton, American by Richard Brookhiser. 1999.

    5. James Madison, A Biography by Ralph Ketcham. 1990. A comprehensive and honest biography.

    6. James Monroe by W.P. Cresson. (1946) Easton Press edition, 1986. This is a colorful, truthful, and well researched biography of a great Virginian who served his country for many years in faithful and diligent service. He seems to be only remembered today as the author of the Monroe Doctrine, but as President of the United States, Monroe presided over the prosperous years known as the Era of Good Feeling.

    7. Founding Father — Rediscovering George Washington by Richard Brookhiser. 1996.

    8. American Sphinx — The Character of Thomas Jefferson by Joseph Ellis. 1997.

    9. Mr. Jefferson by Albert J. Nock. (1956) Reprinted in 1998.

   10. Aaron Burr — Conspiracy to Treason by Buckner F. Melton, Jr. 2002. Although a small tome of 278 pages, this is an engaging and mesmerizing biography from both historic and legal points of view. You will not be able to put this book down! The adventurer and intriguer within Burr jumps out at us from the pages of this book. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and his cousin, Thomas Jefferson, lock horns on federalism and treason. The eccentricities of John Randolph of Virginia, Supreme Court Justice Samuel P. Chase, and, the forgotten Founder, Luther Martin, all come alive with memorable words and deeds!

    11. Fallen Founder — The Life of Aaron Burr by Nancy Isenberg. 2007.  In this book, Ms. Isenberg, in a great leap of faith and with significant scholarship, attempts but fails to restore Burr's historic reputation as an American revolutionary icon and Founding Father. She succeeds in revealing other aspects of Aaron Burr's private life and personality that many of us suspected but could not quite pinpoint. Hamilton and the other American Founders had good reason to mistrust this man.

    12. The Last Founding Father — Jame Monroe and a Nation's Call to Greatness by Harlow Giles Unger. 2009. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

    13. John Quincy Adams by Harlow Giles Unger. 2012. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

    14. Casey — The Lives and Secrets of William J. Casey: From the OSS to the CIA by Joseph E. Persico. 1990. This tome is an excellent biography of William J. Casey, President Ronald Reagan's CIA Director (1981-1986) during one of the "hottest" periods of the Cold War. The life of Casey is a story against all odds, and to understand the story of this man who was so dedicated, the book must be read with the avidity it deserves. The son of Irish-Catholic immigrants, Casey was a man for all seasons, lawyer, author, capitalist, and director of secret intelligence during World War II (OSS), to "king-maker" in the Republican establishment, to finally Director of the CIA.

The cover of the book says, "Persico portrays a man at once complex and simple: a devout Catholic…an ideological warrior always at the ready with a crowbar or a legal brief; a deeply intelligent, yet oddly naive American patriot." I mostly agree. This biography is highly recommended.Gentleman Spy

    15. Gentleman Spy — The Life of Allen Dulles by Peter Grose. 1994. This is a fascinating biography of one of the founding members, most influential, as well as one of the longest serving CIA Directors in the agency's history (1953-1961). Along with his brother, John Foster Dulles, who also served as Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Dulles brothers dominated the intelligence and foreign policy arenas in American politics. This biography is highly recommended.

    16. Dossier — The Secret History of Armand Hammer by Edward Jay Epstein. 1996. What an incredible biography and spectacular journalistic and historical research! When I began to read this book, I wondered what I was doing reading a biography of a man I considered to be a despicable individual, fifteen years after publication. I had previously read two of Edward J. Epstein's books and had been impressed. Those two books are also listed here.

Moreover, I had read reviews of this book at the time of publication and I remember the accolades even years later, so I immersed myself in this book, which turned out to be another spellbinding adventure that I could not put down. Epstein had uncovered information that Armand Hammer thought would remain deeply buried and unrecoverable. From his childhood until his death, every fact on this man's life had been unearthed by the investigative journalism of this incredible author!

The avalanche of facts make intentions and motives crystal clear. This book must be read to be believed. While carefully building a sterling reputation that was central to his duplicitous life, posing as a capitalist, art connoisseur and philanthropist — Mr. Hammer was plainly not the American patriot he liked to portray himself as, posing in photographs with all American presidents, but a Soviet agent,  the Kremlin's man in America!

The Sugar King of Havana    17. The Sugar King of Havana — The Rise and Fall of Julio Lobo, Cuba's Last Tycoon by John Paul Rathbone. 2010.  Besides those with an interest in Cuba, the tropical paradise, her turbulent history, the memories of Old Havana, etc., those with an interest in world economics in the early part of the 20th and 21st centuries, will find this a fascinating book.
 
This is an absolutely enchanting book, explaining Cuban history in terms of revolutionary politics and economics in terms of control of sugar world prices, from the turn of the 20th century just before and during the Cuban Revolution.
 
Sugar was sold then similarly as oil is today, as a world commodity, except that in sugar, Cuba and Julio Lobo, rather than OPEC and Chavez, were the biggest players, that is until Fidel and Raul Castro, Che Guevara, and communism basically destroyed the economy of the island. The rest is history.

    18. Prince Rupert — The Last Cavalier by Charles Spencer. 2007. Charles Spencer — British author, journalist and former correspondent for NBC News, writer, broadcaster, and British peer 9th Earl Spencer and brother of the late Princess Diana, the former Princess of Wales — has written an incredible biography using superb historical research about a truly incredible man, Prince Rupert of the Rhine! As Spencer wrote in the Introduction: "It is hard to believe that one man packed so much into a single lifetime!" See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

V. Memoirs:

    1. The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova De Seingalt. The first complete and unabridged English translation by Arthur Machen in six volumes: Venetian Years; Paris and Prison; The Eternal Quest; Adventures in the South; In London and Moscow; Spanish Passions. In my opinion, these are the best memoirs ever published. Reading these six volumes is not only like stepping into this man's shoes and becoming the great lover, Jacques Casanova, but actually experiencing life, The Memoirs of Jacques Casanove de Seingaltconversations, adventures, and intrigues in the marvelous 18th century in the great European cities of Italy, Spain, France, England, Holland, and even Germany and Russia!

Imagine saving the life of an eminent Venetian senator, a nobleman, and becoming his adopted son! Imagine meeting the Pope and receiving a papal dispensation so he could eat meat on Fridays! Imagine meeting world figures such as Madame de Pompadour, Voltaire, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great; and becoming friends with the great ministers of Louis XV, as well as such notable charlatans as Cagliostro and Saint Germain! And of course, don't forget becoming the greatest lover of the 18th century and seducing high ranking noble women as well as rescuing the lowliest damsels in distress — and loving each and every one of them!

Besides all of this, the memoirs are incredibly and beautifully written as if Casanova was speaking to us today.  I have read no better portrayal of an entire era as contained in these enchanting, six volumes. The only despair is when the book ends and we read the publishers details of the author's final days. What a life!

    2. The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The anonymous translation into English of 1783 and 1790 revised and completed by A.S.B. Glover. Heritage Press edition, 1956. Let us just say that Rousseau cries rivers of tears in recounting details of his life. We laugh and wonder how this man became the influential person he was, and how such giants of the times, including Robespierre and Napoleon, were fascinated by the details of this man's life and his works!

    3. The Confessions of St. Augustine. 1963. Heritage Press edition. This is a very personal and deeply spiritual work of a saintly man speaking to God. We do learn that St. Augustine did, in fact, write: "[Lord,] Grant me chastity and continency, but not yet!" We must remember that this book was written not only in a religious context, but also in the 4th century just before the sun set on the Western Roman Empire. I do believe that St. Augustine's City of God from a historical perspective is even a greater work by this giant of Christian theology.


VI. Non-Fiction:

A. Espionage and Cold War:

    1. KGB — The Inside Story: Of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev by Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky. 1990. An incredibly well-written and enthralling volume on the history of Russian and Soviet espionage and intelligence services. From the Okrana to the KGB, the stories of agents, double agents, betrayals, is superbly told by the first hand experience of one of the greatest heroes of the Cold War, Oleg Gordievsky in collaboration with perhaps the greatest scholar of Cold War secret intelligence, Cambridge professor Christopher Andrew. This tome is a very readable volume that will enchant the reader from beginning to end.

     2. The Sword and the Shield — The Mitrokhin Archives and the Secret History of the KGB by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin. 1999. This is a treasure trove of Russian KGB intelligence secrets that came to us thanks to the courage and determination of KGB officer, Vasili Mitrokhin, who defected to the West in 1992. Mitrokhin and his family were exfiltrated from Russia by the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS). The defector brought with him six cases containing the voluminous secret notes that he had copied from the top secret KGB files on a daily basis for twelve years, from 1972-1984! These files went as far back as 1918 and contained all of the information available to the KGB's First Chief Directorate up until Mitrokhin's retirement in 1984. As a result of Mitrokhin's defection with his trove of secret files, hundreds of Soviet agents, Russian spies, and American traitors have been uncovered, and many have been brought to justice. These files are still being studied by scholars as well as Western intelligence services. This volume contains an enormous amount of material, code names, intelligence files, and probably will be savored only by the true espionage, Sovietologists, and Cold War aficionados.

    3. The World Was Going Our Way — The KGB and the Battle For the Third World (Newly Revised Secrets from The Mitrokhin Archives) by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin. 2005. What a magnificent volume further revealing Russian Cold War secrets. Once again, the collaboration of Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin result in an explosive combination detailing Soviet espionage and the CIA-KGB wars in the Third World. Yes, the world might have been going the way of the Soviets in the intelligence wars, particularly in the Third World, and the KGB was as astounded as we were with the sudden collapse of the Soviet Union — but the truth was that Russian collectivism was rotten to the core and not even the almost omnipotent KGB could prevent the collapse of Soviet communism. This tome is much more reader friendly KGB dust jacketthan their previous volume, The Sword and The Shield, and should have a wider audience. This volume is highly recommended not only espionage fans, but also to modern historians and scholars of Third World foreign policy and international studies.

4. KGB — The Secret Work of the Soviet Secret Agents by John Barron, Reader's Digest Press, New York, NY, 1974. This is a seminal book and monumental  work on the history, the (then) current methods, organization, goals, of Soviet espionage — i.e.,  KGB foreign intelligence with its First Chief Directorate — and internal security operations — i.e., the Second Chief Directorate.

The author, John D. Barron (1930-2005), was an American investigative journalist, a brilliant Reader's Digest writer and editor, and one of the foremost scholars of Soviet espionage during the Cold War.

This book detailed and exposed all the KGB officers posted across the world who were then known to the Western security services and dealt a crushing blow to KGB operations throughout the world! It is 462 pages, including 14 chapters, four major appendices, chapter notes, full bibliography, and an excellent index. It is fully illustrated with 16 pages of photos revealing the faces of many of the main protagonists and antagonists, as well as operational methods. This book is not only a historic classic of espionage during the Cold War, but an informative thriller. I recommend it to historians, as well as Cold War and espionage aficionados, and assign it 5 stars without reservation — and this is almost forty years after its publication! An absolutely outstanding nonfiction classic! See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    5. Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness — A Soviet Spymaster by  Pavel Sudoplatov and Anatoli Sudoplatov with Jerrold L. and Leona P. Schecter. 1994. In the Foreword to this book, the historian Robert Conquest writes: "This is the most sensational, the most devastating, and in many ways the most informative autobiography ever to emerge from the Stalinist milieu. It is perhaps the most important single contribution to our knowledge since Khrushchev's Secret Speech….The range of Sudoplatov's activities….is remarkable." I agree!

Moreover, I believe we should let Sudoplatov give us a summary from his own Prologue: "My name if Pavel Anatolievich Sudoplatov, but I do not expect you to recognize it, because for fifty-eight years it was one of the best-kept secrets in the Soviet Union….I was responsible for Trotsky's assassination and, during World War II, I was in charge of guerrilla warfare and disinformation in Germany and German-occupied territories. After the war I continued to run illegal networks abroad whose purpose was to sabotage American and NATO instillations in the event hostilities broke out. I was also in charge of the Soviet espionage effort to obtain the secrets of the atomic bomb from America and Great Britain. I set up a network of illegals who convinced Robert Oppenheimer, Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Bruno Pontecorvo, Alan Nunn May, Klaus Fuchs, and other scientists in American and Great Britain to share atomic secrets with us. It is strange to look back fifty years and re-create the mentality that led us to take vengeance on our enemies with cold self-assurance…"

This is an incredible memoir, but I have placed it under the heading of Espionage and Cold War for the obvious nature of the astoundingly secret, explosive, and sensitive revelations of the main author. Sudoplatov was in charge of "Special Tasks," a euphemism for the department of "wet affairs" (assassinations) and other state top secrets of the USSR under Lavrenti Beria and Joseph Stalin.

    6. Stalin — Breaker of Nations by Robert Conquest  (1991) covers the life of Joseph Stalin, from his childhood in Gori to his death at his Nearer dacha (Kuntsevo) near Moscow on March Stalin Breaker of Nations dust jacket5, 1953. This book is 346 pages, including bibliographical notes and index. The book is easy to read, well-organized, and ideal for the beginning student of Soviet history and Stalinism. It contains two sets of photographs that put faces on the victims of Stalin, adding tangible personification to the almost surreal sense of totalitarian horror, i.e., socialist terror incarnate!

Through the sequential Congresses of the Party, we can follow Stalin's career as he ascends the levels of power with words and deeds, until he reaches the zenith of despotic, autocratic, and absolute power, and then the Congresses cease convening. Stalin rules with his inner circle, his minions who cajoled but also feared him.

Stalin even admitted to his Cheka Chief, Feliks Dzerzhinsky, and Politburo member, Lev Kamenev, "To choose one's victims, to prepare one's plans minutely, to slake an implacable vengeance, and then go to bed...there is nothing sweeter in the world."

Stalin was able to do this repeatedly and with tremendous precision, through to his anti-semitic campaign against alleged "Cosmopolitanism," and the Doctors' Plot Affair two decades later up to the eve of his death in 1953. This book tells you all about it. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    7.  Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy by Dmitri Volkogonov. 1988. As "the first glasnost biography" of dictator Joseph Stalin, author Dmitri Volkogonov, General of the Soviet Army and head of the Institute of MIlitary History, writes "My book is called Triumph and Tragedy to suggest how the triumph of one man became the tragedy for a whole people." See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.Stalin by Edvard Radzinski 

    8. Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents From Russia's Secret Archives by Edvard Radzinsky. 1997. An authoritative, engaging, thrilling, and edifying biography of the Red Czar of the Soviet Union, the tyrant Joseph Stalin. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    9. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar by Simon Sebag Monefiore. 2003. With stunning attention to detail, Montefiore provides us with a galvanizing portrait of a Stalin "as human and complicated as he is brutal" and chronicles the lives of those notorious henchmen who entered the court of the Red Tsar.

Among the many atrocious incidents cited in this book, there is one that stands out and that is the Katyn Forest massacre, how Stalin dealt with the order and his henchmen to hush up the atrocity, and more graphically, how it was done by the NKVD secret police so as to blame the Germans and wipe out the future intellectual elite of the Polish nation. By eliminating the officers (and reserve officers), who in their civilian functions were mostly professionals — the elite members of Polish society — the Soviets would decapitate the Poles of their leaders and easily subdue them.

As to how the shooting was actually done, a Soviet NKVD officer, Vasili Mikhailovich Blokhin, describes how he went down to the Ostachkov Camp where he and two other fellow officers "outfitted a hut with padded, soundproof walls and decided on a Stakhanovite quota of 250 shootings a night." In this fashion, he and his fellow Chekists executed 7,000 Polish officers "in precisely 28 nights using a German Walther pistol to prevent future exposure." Of the 22,000 Polish officers executed, 4,500 were interred in the Katyn Forest.

 Young Stalin   10. Young Stalin by Simon Sebag Montefiore. 2007. A well-researched, well-written, absorbing, and authoritative biography of Joseph Stalin's early years. Montefiore used archival material which had lain forgotten in dusty storage for years, interviewed eyewitnesses or their descendants, and perhaps most importantly, he uncovered and published material from a number of previously unpublished memoirs (for the first time made available for his book). This includes material from Stalin's girlfriends, terrorist comrades and revolutionary rivals, who knew him well; many of them later turned against him and perished. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    11. Stalin's Secret Agents — The Subversion of Roosevelt's Government by M. Stanton Evans and Herbert Romerstein. 2012. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    12. Deception — The Invisible War Between the KGB and the CIA by Edward Jay Epstein. 1989. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

    13. The JFK Assassination Diary: My Search For Answers to the Mystery of the Century by Edward Jay Epstein. 2013. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

    14. Case Closed — Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK by Gerald Posner. 1993. "Case Closed finally succeeds where hundreds of other books and investigations have failed — it resolves the greatest murder mystery of our time, the assassination of Case Closed by Gerald PosnerJFK. Based upon explosive new interviews, secret files and evidence, Case Closed not only uncovers where the Warren Commission erred but also demolishes the leading conspiracy theories, putting to rest once and for all speculation about involvement of the CIA, FBI, and the mafia, and the supposed links between Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby. Case Closed answers all lingering questions about the assassination and reveals how the latest computer enhancements of the Zapruder film determine the number and precise timing of the shots fired in Dealey Plaza" on November 22, 1963. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    15. Legend — The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald by Edward Jay Epstein. 1978. Absolutely absorbing reading! Another gem from Edward J. Epstein.

    16. Oswald's Tale, An American Mystery by Norman Mailer. 1995. I am not a fan of Norman Mailer, but I must admit that this is an outstanding volume with engaging narrative and incredible research. This is probably the best book written on Lee Harvey Oswald's life from the assassin's perspective. This book presents a sharp contrast to Legend by Edward J. Epstein. Obviously, Mailer's book was written and published seventeen years later and more information was available to him, not to mention the fact that he was able to enter Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union and obtain information and interview citizens. None of this was available to Mr. Epstein in the 1970s.

   17. Death of a Dissident — The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB by Alex Goldfarb with Marina Litvinenko. 2007. "The assassination of former Russian intelligence officer Alexander 'Sasha' Litvinenko in November 2006 — poisoned by the rare radioactive element polonium — caused an international sensation. Within a few short weeks, the fit 43-year-old lay gaunt, bald, and dying in a hospital, the victim of a 'tiny nuclear bomb.' Suspicions swirled around Russia's FSB, the successor to the KGB, and the Putin regime. Traces of polonium radiation were found in Germany and on certain airplanes, suggesting a travel route from Russia for the carriers of the fatal poison. But what really happened? What did Litvinenko know? And why was he killed?....His closest friend, Alex Goldfarb, and his widow, Marina, are the only two people who can tell it all, from firsthand knowledge, with dramatic scenes from Moscow to London to Washington. Death of a Dissident reads like a political thriller, yet its story is more fantastic and frightening than any novel."

    18. Comrade J — The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War by Pete Earley. 2007. "In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed, the Cold War ended, and a new world order began. We thought everything had changed. But one thing never changed: the spies. Spymaster, defector, and double agent — the remarkable true story of Sergei Tretyakov who ran Russia's post-Cold War spy program in America....Many spies have told their stories. None of them has the astonishing immediacy, relevance, and cautionary warnings as Comrade J."Comrade J Dust Jacket

After World War II, it took the valiant efforts of the Russian defector, code clerk Igor Gozenko, to awaken America and her allies to the fact that Uncle Joe, the greatest mass murderer in history, and our Russian communist friends were conducting serious, devastating espionage against the United States (e.g., atomic secrets among others) at the same time that we were providing the Soviets with vital economic and military aid during "The Great Patriotic War" against the Nazis.

The Berlin Wall comes crashing down in 1989 and the Soviet Union collapses in 1991. Again, the Russians were said to be our friends and allies in the war against (Islamic) terrorism. Even a professor wrote enthusiastically that we had reached the end of history, so humanity has to become reconciled to live peacefully under a soft blend of global socialism and capitalism. Now enters Russian master spy defector Sergei Tretyakov of the New York Rezidentura of the SVR ( the former First Chief Directorate of the KGB) to rain on this optimistically dystopic parade.

And Tretyakov is no ordinary spy of the Communist era. He is the first KGB/SVR officer, who was actively spying for the new Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union, to defect to the USA. According to a senior FBI agent involved in the case, Sergei Tretyakov "has been by far the most important Russian Spy that our side has had in decades...I can tell you this man saved American lives." See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

Our Man in Mexico    19. Operation Solo — The FBI's Man in the Kremlin by John Barron. 1996. This is the story of three heroes of the Cold War that very few Americans know about, a great cliffhanger, suspense-thriller — and it is all true!

    20. Our Man in Mexico — Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA by Jefferson Morley. Foreword by Michael Scott. 2008. This is another suspenseful story of an unsung American hero operating quietly and effectively in our own backyard.

    21. Traitors Among Us — Inside the Spy Catcher's World by Stuart A. Herrington. 1999. This book is a collection of stories about military traitors who sold their country's secrets to the Soviets for cold cash. Here is an excerpt from an Amazon.com review written by Mr. Wilburn Rowell:

"Herrington does a good job of telling of the military espionage by US servicemen who betrayed their country: the terrible damage that can occur because of it, the inherent difficulties in investigation, building a case for the prosecution, and the consequences for those who choose to sell out their country for money…."

I fully agree with this assessment! The reviewer's final words are particularly poignant:

"As a former serviceman stationed in Germany during the 1970s, I am appalled at the betrayal of our country by these sellouts. The terrible horror that communism unleashed upon the world and we in the West fought so valiantly against cannot be dismissed by some Marxist professor or journalist saying 'McCarthyism'. An estimated 100 million people were killed because of Communism (Black Book of Communism), and many of them were Americans."

I also applaud Mr. Rowell for this informative review and thank him for his service to this country and the cause of freedom in the world! Dr. Miguel A. Faria
Flawed Patriot
    22. The Spy Who Saved the World — How a Soviet Colonel Changed the Course of the Cold War by Jerrold L. Schecter and Peter S. Deriabin. 1992. This is the story of Soviet GRU Colonel Oleg Penkovsky, who gave his life in the service of the British and American intelligence — and in the cause of freedom during the Cold War.

    23. Flawed Patriot — The Rise and Fall of CIA Legend Bill Harvey by Bayard Stockton. 2006. Bill Harvey was our American James Bond, but unfortunately his life was complex and his fate tragic in the service of his country. A well-written and researched biography of a lesser known American hero.

    24. The Spy Who Got Away — The Inside Story of Edward Lee Howard, the CIA Agent Who Betrayed His Country's Secrets and Escaped to Moscow by David Wise. 1988. Well-written and fascinating biography of a traitor.

    25. Ruse — Undercover with FBI Counterintelligence by Robert Eringer. 2007. This book is a hell of a suspenseful ride! A good patriotic hustler who risks his life for country and justice, Eringer goes after traitor Edward Lee Howard in post-communist Russia; assists in the capture of notorious killer Ira Einhorn in France; hoodwinks die-hard communist KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov in Moscow; and plays the Great Game skillfully with Cuban Intelligence in Washington and Havana. Kudos for Mr. Eringer's book, an excellent sequel and denoument for David Wise's The Spy Who Got Away (1988)! Highly recommended for those who, like me, Nightmoverprefer Cold War non-fiction, real life spy thrillers to fiction, cloak and dagger potboilers!

    26. Confessions of a Spy — The Real Story of Aldrich Ames by Pete Earley. 1997.

    27. Nightmover — How Aldrich Ames Sold the CIA to the KGB for $4.6 Million by David Wise. 1995.

    28. Spy — The Inside Story of How the FBI's Robert Hanssen Betrayed America by David Wise. 2002.

    29. The Spy Next Door — The Extraordinary Secret Life of Robert Philip Hanssen, the Most Damaging FBI Agent in U.S. History by Elaine Shannon and Ann Blackman. 2002.

    30. The Main Enemy — The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB by Milt Bearden and James Risen.  2003. An interesting account of the CIA-KGB war during the 1980s and 1990s.

    31. Deadly Illusions — The KGB Orlov Dossier Reveals Stalin's Master Spy by John Costello and Oleg Tsarev. 1993.

    32. Alexander Orlov — The FBI's KGB General by Edward Gazur. 2001. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    33. Spies — The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America by John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev. 2009. This is a must have, comprehensive reference source for scholars of the Cold War, espionage, and the KGB — as well as spy buffs.Farewell

    34. Farewell — The Greatest Spy Story of the Twentieth Century by Sergei Kostin and Eric Raynaud. Translated by Catherine Cauvin-Higgins. 2011. The disintegration of the USSR is inextricably entwined and intimately related to the life and times, failures and accomplishments, paradoxes and contradictions of the courageous Russian....Code name: Farewell. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

     35. Tiger Trap — America's Secret Spy War with China by David Wise. 2011. An astounding and critically needed book as Americans know very little about the espionage activities of China in the United States. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    36. The Widow Spy by Martha D. Peterson. 2012. A real-life thriller that begins when a seemingly typical American housewife, in an unusual gesture, invites her two teenage children out to lunch. This is twenty years after the main events subsequently depicted in the book. Subtitled "My CIA Journey from the Jungles of Laos to Prison in Moscow," readers can only imagine her children's reaction — "Mom is a spy"! From courageous widow to avenging spy, Peterson's recollections take us on an emotional rollercoaster ride and provide a most engaging book. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

A Time To Betray    37. A Time to Betray — The Astonishing Double Life of a CIA Agent Inside the Revolutionary Guards of Iran by Reza Kahlili. 2010. One of the most heartrending, and at the same time, enthralling accounts of courage, dissimulation, and personal suffering in the genre of espionage memoirs. This is the story of a courageous man (Kahlili), who justly betrays and risks his life (and that of his family) to fight surreptitiously against the cruelties and injustices of the ruling government of his native country — Iran. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    38. Warrior: Frank Sturgis —The CIA's #1 Assassin-Spy, Who Nearly Killed Castro But Was Ambushed by Watergate by Jim Hunt and Bob Risch. 2011. The incredible real life adventures of Frank Sturgis is recounted in this riveting book, which reads like a novel, but it is incredibly all true! The tome is a biographical tribute of a nephew (Jim Hunt) to his uncle, a real-life American hero, who gave everything for his country — the comfort and niceties of his home and family life, the profits and security of his businesses, and ultimately his life. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.


B. World War II:

    1. Churchill's Deception — The Dark Secret That Destroyed Nazi Germany by Louis C. Kilzer. 1994. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.Hitler's Traitor

    2. Hitler's Traitor — Martin Bormann and the Defeat of the Reich by Louis C. Kilzer. 2000. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website. 


C. Political Science Classics:

    1. The Law by Frederic Bastiat. 1850. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French patriot as well as an economist, politician, statesman, and writer. As a deputy to the French legislative assembly just before and immediately the revolution of 1848, Bastiat opposed socialism espoused by Louis Blanc and other collectivists in the assembly. Unfortunately, Bastiat died from tuberculosis shortly before the publication of this little masterpiece! Some of his famous quotes are: "Socialism is legal plunder under or justified by false philanthropy"; "Law is force therefore it should be a negative concept"; "Legal plunder is organized injustice"; "The law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and property"; "Socialism is philanthropic tyranny."

    2. Destructive Generation — Second Thoughts About the '60s by Peter Collier and David Horowitz. 1989. This book is the best book written about revolutionary groups in the U.S.A. during the 1960s. It has well researched and well written stories on The Weatherman underground terrorist group with colorful sketches of Bernadine Dohrn and Billy Ayers; Huey Newton, the Black Panther leader; the radical students at Berkley; the poignant story of radical lawyer Fay Stender; the Black terrorist, Geoge Jackson; Cuba and the Venceremos Brigade; the real meaning of McCarthyism; and other hot button issues of the New Left of the 1960s.

Moreover, the conversion of the authors, Peter Collier and David Horowitz, from leftist radicals to conservative political thinkers is of itself a marvelous read! This book is highly recommended.

Radical Son dust jacket    3. Radical Son — A Generational Odyssey by David Horowitz. 1997. This book supplements what we learn in Destructive Generation, and as the author points out, it is David Horowitz's personal and generational odyssey from a left-wing radical to an intellectual leader of the conservative right. 

This enthralling autobiography is a political testament of David Horowitz and traces three generations of his family's political fortunes. From the publisher: "One American family's infatuation with the radical left from the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 to the collapse of the Marxist empire six decades later.

"David Horowitz was one of the founders of the New Left and an editor of Ramparts, the magazine that set the intellectual and revolutionary tone for the movement. From his vantage point at the center of action, he populates Radical Son with vivid portraits of people who made the radical decade, while unmaking America at the same time. We are introduced to an aged Bertrand Russell, the world famous philosopher and godson of John Stuart Mill, who in his nineties became America's scourge, organizing a War Crimes Tribunal over the war in Vietnam. There is Tom Hayden, the radical Everyman who promoted guerrilla warfare in America's cities in the Sixties, married film legend Jane Fonda, and became a Democratic state senator when his revolutions failed. We meet Huey Newton, a street hustler and murderer who founded a black militia that became the Sixties' most resonant symbol of black power and black militance.

"Horowitz's encounter with Newton and his Black Panthers, the most celebrated radical group of the Sixties, become the focal point of the story when a brutal murder committed by the Panthers changes his life forever, prompting the profound "second thoughts" that eventually led him to become an intellectual leader of conservatism and its most prominent activist in Hollywood." I certainly agree. This book is a must-read and I cannot but make the highest recommendation. MAF

    4. Soul on Fire by Eldridge Cleaver. (1978). Soul on FireEldridge Cleaver's first book was Soul on Ice, which was a radical, counter-culture tome indicting America for everything under the sun, from the perspective of a Black Panther leader. It was required reading for me in my freshman year in college. Cleaver renounced that book years later, but that tome still remains the only book by Cleaver that the media and academia still acknowledge.

Cleaver was not only a violent radical but a Black Panther revolutionary, who escaped from Oakland, California in a hail of bullets; when the smoke had cleared, he had vanished, escaped from the evil "American capitalism and imperialism." He reappeared years later touring the various Worker's Paradises. He had visited hard-core communist countries, North Korea, Cuba, and the USSR, where he was feted and honored. In those countries where supposedly "all men are equal and their dignity respected," Cleaver found corruption, repression, lies, and racism. He was also welcomed in the social democracies of Western Europe, but even in these socialist countries with a "human face," he could see through the dissimulation. Finally after seeing the light of truth, Cleaver recognized that the United States of America was the beacon of freedom in the world and that there was no better country on earth. He called the FBI and told them he was catching the next plane fom Paris to the USA and to wait for him at the other Eldgridge Cleaverend. He was turning himself in to face American justice. He would rather face prison in the United States than live as a fugitive in the socialist world! This journey is recounted in his later book, Soul on Fire.

And Soul on Fire is indeed, Cleaver's true masterpiece , his personal journey from a violent Black Panther radical of the 1960s to a repentant and wise American patriot of the early 1980s! This book, by a small publisher (Word Books of Waco, Texas) is hard to find, but well-worth the search and the read iif you can find a copy! It is a magnificent narrative containing politics, memoirs, philosophy, and Eldridge Cleaver's personal odyssey from radical revolutionary to conservative thinker. Find this book and read it! MAF

    5. Our Enemy the State by Albert Jay Nock. 1935. This book by the libertarian Albert Jay Nock, a gifted writer and founder of The Freeman magazine, shows that libertarians can be on the extreme right of the political spectrum and sometimes can even border on a pacifist form of anarchism. As I wrote in March 1997 when I first finished reading it, "This book is anarchism at its best." This book is an antidote against statism and collectivism, but don't expect modern socialists to read it.Out of America by Keith Richburg

    6. Out of America — A Black Man Confronts Africa by Keith B. Richburg. 1997.  "This outstanding book by a black American journalist for The Washington Post recounts the emotional and spiritual awakening of the author upon his fateful visit to his ancestral home, Africa. He vividly recounts his adventurers and journalistic travails on the Dark Continent, and finds he belongs happily and unregretfully in America. He thanks Providence for the fact his ancestors were brought to America, even as slaves, so that he could be born a free man in America. One of the most poignant scenes in the book sums it up. In shock, he sees countless numbers of black corpses floating down a river in Rwanda. He states, as politically incorrect as it may be, "There but by the grace of God, go I." The book is a must read for everyone, particularly those who want to supplant America for a utopian paradise that has never existed in Africa or elsewhere — not even in socialism, communism, or any form of collectivism." 1999 Amazon.com book review written by MAF.

     7. Beyond Freedom and Dignity by B.F. Skinner. 1971. In his book,  psychologist B.F. Skinner wages war against the cherished Western concept of individual freedom and the dignity of man. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

D. Health Care:

    1. Vandals at the Gates of Medicine — Historic Perspectives on the Battle Over Health Care Reform by Miguel A. Faria, Jr., MD. 1995. Read the complete book review on this website.

    2. Medical Warrior: Fighting Corporate Socialized Medicine by Miguel A. Faria, Jr., MD. 1997. Read the complete book review on this website.

    3. The Serpent on the Staff — The Unhealthy Politics of the American Medical Association by Howard Wolinsky and Tom Brune. 1994. Read the complete book review on this website.

    4. Code Blue — Health Care in Crisis by Edward R. Annis, MD. 1993. Read the complete book review on this website.

    5. Your Doctor Is Not In by Jane M. Orient, MD. 1993. Read the complete book review on this website.

Excitotoxins — The Taste that Kills    6. Excitotoxins — The Taste that Kills by Russell L. Blaylock, MD. 1994. This book, written by a board-certified neurosurgeon, "describes what excitotoxins are, where they are found, and how they react in the body. Dr. Blaylock presents the latest research findings to demonstrate how exposure to excitotoxins will damage nerve cells in the brain. The use of aspartame, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, and monosodium glutamate in prepared foods and beverages continues to increase on a yearly basis. Dr. Blaylock clearly demonstrates that the neurotoxic potential of excitotoxins such as MSG and aspartame (NutraSweet) is so overwhelming that it can no longer be ignored." Read Dr. Lawrence Huntoon's complete book review on this website.

    7. Health and Nutrition Secrets That Can Save Your Life by Russell L. Blaylock, MD. 2002. Dr Faria writes: "Dr. Blaylock's latest magnum opus contains superb chapters covering essentially every aspect of health and nutrition; brain and body protection against toxins, injury, and disease; and even defense against bioterrorism.

"He covers causes of degenerative diseases, including the bad effects of free radicals and the benefits of certain minerals, vitamins, and other more powerful antioxidants; nutrition, genes, and genetic switches; the danger of mercury from various sources; the effect of fluoride from drinking water, toothpaste, and other sources; other toxic metals to avoid; vaccination hazards; toxic food additives; pesticides and other harmful chemicals; and causes of arteriosclerosis, stroke, heart attack, and other diseases of aging and how to prevent them."

This is the one book that every household should have! Read Dr. Faria's complete book review on this website.

   8. Patient Power: The Free-Enterprise Alternative to Clinton's Health Plan by John C. Goodman and Gerald L. Musgrave. 1993. Do you want to enhance your access to quality medical care? Do you want to maintain control of your own health care? Are you tired of insurance companies or other third-party payers interfering with your medical care decisions?  Marvelous tome that is simple-to-read, easy to understand, and explains, in plain English, the only true free-market alternative to all the various socialized medicine schemes that have been offered up, and that is, Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs). In Patient Power, the authors will tell you exactly how to regain control of your own medical care!

E. Cuba

     1. Cuba in Revolution — Escape From a Lost Paradise by Miguel A. Faria, Jr., MD. 2002. "Thirty-six years ago after a harrowing ordeal at sea, Miguel A. Faria, Jr., escaped from Cuba with his father and found a new home in the United States. Cuba's loss was America's gain. A Cuba in Revolution — Escape From a Lost Paradiseconsummate historian, Dr. Faria here applies himself with gusto, using a treasure-trove of inside information to tell his personal odyssey and to reveal the true story of the Cuban Revolution and its sell-out to communism. Especially noteworthy are the unknown stories of the Cuban patriots who fought Castro's communist regime." (Read Dr. Jerome Arnett's complete book review on this site.)

And, here is what Dr. Russell Blaylock writes about this book: "Most of us who enjoy reading books concerning our world, especially those dealing with acts of courage arising from human tragedy, find a few works that have a lasting effect on our lives, not just because of the subject, but because of the way in which it is presented. Few writers can fill the reader with an overwhelming sense of emotion that normally only comes with first hand experience. I found this in Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's The Gulag Archipelago and Armando Valladares' Against all Hope…." (Read Dr. Russell Blaylock's complete book review on this site.)

Cuba in Revolution — Escape From a Lost Paradise reveals the untold story of the Cuban Revolution, an eyewitness account weaved through a boy's intrepid escape via several Caribbean islands. Dr. Miguel Faria pounces on the purported triumphs of the Revolution, unravels the alleged gains, exposes the truth, and sets straight the historic record. The picture that comes to light is that of a brutal police state, mass repression, desolation, privation, and intolerance.

    2. Dagger in the Heart — American Policy Failures in Cuba by Mario Lazo. 1968. This is an early epic history of the Cuban Revolution up to the early 1960s by Mario Lazo, an upper class Cuban lawyer, who was well-connected to and a major player in the elite Cuban-American business community. And yet, Lazo was no close-minded Batistiano but a concerned Cuban patriot. And his book is very poignant, the work of an informed citizen, who saw his nation disintegrate and did what he could to save the pieces. Moreover, as an insider, he relates how the U.S. lost opportunity after opportunity to help the island from falling to communism; instead the men of the U.S. State Department did what they could to see that the revolutionaries prevailed against Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. This is a must read book, and a beginner's entry into Cuban revolutionary history.

    3. Fidel Castro by Robert E. Quirk. 1993. This is the most comprehensive biography of the Communist dictator to date, yet it is quite readable. Quirk's  scholarship is superlative. This biography is magnificent and plainly fascinating! No other book about the life and times of Fidel Castro comes close to matching Quirk's magnum opus!

Mea Cuba    4. Mea Cuba by Guillermo Cabrera Infante. 1992. A thoughtful collection of writings by the famed Cuban author and editor of Lunes de Revolucion literary magazine. This is required reading for the literati of Cuban revolutionary literature and cultural history.

The stories and repression of Cuban poets and writers at the time of the Revolution is told splendidly by Cabrera Infante. From those who went along, Alejo Carpentier, Ernest Hemingway, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Nicolas Guillen, and Alfredo Guevara; those who saw the coming dictatorship (too late), Carlos Franqui, Heberto Padilla, Carlos Alberto Montaner, and Cabrera Infante; those who refused to compromise and escaped, Reinaldo Arenas, Luis Aguero, and Walterio Carbonell; those who perished in and became victims of the Revolution, Virgilio Pinera and Jose Lezama Lima. What a panorama!

The destruction of artistic talent in Cuba reminds one of the same happenings in Russia immediately after the Bolshevik Revolution — i.e., the loss of the rich fountain of artistic and literary geniuses during the silver age of Russia, Zinaida Gippius, Alexander Blok, Andrei Bely, Marc Chagall, Vladimir Mayakovsky!

What was the intelligentsia in Cuba permitted to write and express their artistic and literary talents immediately after the triumph of the Revolution? As Fidel Castro told them at a convened writers' meeting: "Within the Revolution everything; outside the Revolution, nothing!"

    5. Shadow Warrior — The CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles by Felix I. Rodriguez and John Weisman. 1989. This is the story of courage of Felix Rodriguez, one of the great heroes of Cuba and the United States in the 20th Century. He participated in the Bay of Pigs invasion, and in CIA covert operations in Central America, in the Caribbean, and in Europe as well as in Far East Asia. Rodriguez presided over the capture and execution of Che Guevara in Bolivia, testified at the Iran-Contra Hearings, and...well, you will have to read his book!

    6. Against All Hope:The Prison Memoirs of Armando Valladares by Armando Valladares (1986). This is a kafkaesque drama which turns into a living nightmare, the stories of the Cuban Solzhenitsyn and his fellow prisoners in the gulag system of that imprisoned island. But Valladares, like Solzhenitsyn before him, could not be broken by the system of torture and repression, despite 20 years of living hell. This memoir is highly recommended, but (and this is not a cliche warning) the book is not for the squeamish!

    7. Cuba en Guerra — Historia de la Oposicion Anti-Castrista 1959-1993 by Enrique Encinosa. 1994. Written in Spanish. "This book is not for the easily offended or faint-hearted. The poignant text, carefully annotated, meticulously researched, and succinctly put together by Enrique Encinosa is accompanied by graphic photos of rebel leaders...who died or were captured and executed by the communist dictator while attempting to bring freedom to Cuba....Why would campesinos (peasants), workers, or students pick up arms and lead open revolts in the Escambray Mountains against Fidel Castro's "worker's paradise?" Why would Cuban exiles living good comfortable lives in Miami with their families leave the U.S. to go Unvanquishedback to Cuba, breach communist defenses to conduct clandestine operations, infiltration, and uprisings against Fidel Castro's communist government? You must read this book to find out." Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review on this website.

    8. Unvanquished — Cuba's Resistance to Fidel Castro by Enrique Encinosa. 2004. Although non-fiction, this book reads more like a novel! "It's the stupendous work of the serious scholar, Enrique Encinosa, who has written the definitive works on the guerrilla wars waged by anticommunist Cuban rebels against the repressive, totalitarian regime of Fidel and Raul Castro….Those who have opined that Cubans have not fought enough to obtain their freedom should read Encinosa’s chronicle. This is the story that proves them wrong. This little tome chronicles the previously unwritten and little-noticed, heroic efforts of those who have tried to bring freedom to Cuba by armed insurrection from inside and outside Cuba, efforts that have been ignored by the American media…"  Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review on this website.

    9. Cuba — Dilemmas of a Revolution by Juan M. del Aguila. 1994. A well researched, written, and annotated book by Emory University Political Science Professor Juan del Aguila. Essential tome for the Cuban economic and political faction researcher in the early days of the Revolution.

    10. Insider — My Hidden Life as a Revolutionary in Cuba by Jose Luis Llovio-Menendez. 1988. The story of a young Cuban student revolutionary married to a Parisian Insiderbeauty and heiress and living in Europe who gets enticed to return to Cuba after the triumph of the Revolution. Upon his return, Llovio-Menendez becomes trapped in the island prison. The workers' paradise turns out not to be as described, but he finds this out too late. His family is exiled or imprisoned, and seemingly there is no exit for him!

    11. Bay of Pigs — The Untold Story by Peter Wyden. 1979. Along with the book mentioned below, this tome is a good beginning chronicle of the Bay of Pigs fiasco, which Fidel Castro called "the first defeat of Yankee imperialism in America."

    12. The Bay of Pigs — The Leaders' Story of Brigade 2506 by Haynes Johnson. 1964. This book, as well as the one mentioned above, compliment each other even though they are written from two different perspectives. This book is more passionate, written from the viewpoint of the Cuban exile participants. Both are highly recommended reading.

    13. The Sugar King of Havana — The Rise and Fall of Julio Lobo, Cuba's Last Tycoon by John Paul Rathbone. 2010. This book is fully described in the Biographies section above.

    14. Cuba: Viaje Al Pasado by Roberto A. Solera. 1994. One of the few books that reveals information about the surviving leaders of the Student Revolutionary Directorate, who fought against Fulgencio Batista and then joined the Revolution led by the opposite rival group, Fidel Castro's 26 of July Movement.

    15. Natumaleza Cubana by Carlos Wotzkow. 1998. With Prologue by Guillermo Cabrera Infante. This book is required reading for environmentalists, who refuse to see the realities of a communist dictatorship and the ecological disasters in its wake. Central planning is bad for economic and social freedom as well as the environment.

     Castro's Secrets16. Castro's Secrets — The CIA and Cuba's Intelligence Machine by Brian Latell. 2012. The author — a professor, scholar, and retired CIA officer, who had been active in foreign intelligence for 35 years — relies extensively on information provided by Cuban defectors and describes the largest and longest lasting double agent operation in the annals of world espionage. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    17. After Fidel — The Inside Story of Castro's Regime and Cuba's Next Leader by Brian Latell. 2005. In After Fidel, author Brian Latell — a National Intelligence Officer (1990-1994) and the top analyst for Cuba and Latin America for all the U.S intelligence agencies — describes in persuasive detail the personal relationship between Fidel and Raúl Castro. The book also contains dramatic revelations about the Castro brothers, even for those familiar with the history of the Cuban Revolution and the many biographies of Fidel Castro. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complette book review posted on this website.

VII. Fiction: 

A. Political Science Classics:

    1. 1984 by George Orwell. 1949. Norwalk, CT, Easton Press edition, 1992. This is Orwell's masterpiece of political philosophy using a futuristic world of collectivist dystopia to denounce totalitarianism and the brutal subjugation of the individual to the state. The reader is invited to read Dr. Miguel Faria's article, "Liberal Orthodoxy and the Squelching of Political and Scientific Dissent," in which George Orwell's tour de force, 1984, is used as an introduction to his article.

    2. Animal Farm by George Orwell. 1946. Norwalk, CT, Easton Press edition, 1992.Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand

    3. Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand. 1957. Please see the movie reviews of this monumental novel espousing Rand's individual-based Objectivist philosophy, which she developed as an antidote to the traces of the poison of collectivism she already detected in her time and foresaw in the suffocating future world of ours!

    4. The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand. 1943. An architect fights to preserve his individualism and the originality of his work against the tide of conformity — and the lack of innovation and mediocrity such collectivist conformity fosters.

    5. Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. 1932. Easton Press edition, 1978. A futuristic, dystopia I chose to place in this section of political science classics. In a futuristic society, the people are bred articially to serve specific societal tasks, as workers or professionals. The elites running society keep the populaton servile and content by administering an euphoric drug, Soma (i.e., "all the advantages of Chrisitianity and alcohol; none of their defects."), to keep the workers happy, submissive, and productive. Independence of thought and action was not tolerated: " ' By his heretical views on sport and soma, by the scandalous unorthodoxy of his sex-life, by his refusal to obey the teachings of Our Ford and behave out of office hours, even as a little infant, (here the Director made the sign of the T), he has proved himself an enemy of Society, a subverter, ladies and gentlemen, of all Order and Stability, a conspirator against Civilization itself. For this reason I propose to dismiss him, to dismiss him with ignominy from the post he has held in this Centre...' "

An excellent television movie (1998) was made of this novel starring Leonard Nimoy (as World controller Mustapha Mond) and Peter Gallagher (as Bernard Marx, an alpha executive at the Department of hatcheries and Conditioning). Marx is increasingly coming under scrutiny for his monogamous relationship with a school teacher and his unorthodox theories of human psychology...


B. General Classics and Historic Novels:

The Magic Mountain
    1. The Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann. 1924. The Magic Mountain is an enchanting novel by German novelist and short story writer, Thomas Mann (1875-1955), who received the 1929 Nobel Prize for Literature. This tour de force novel relates the story of Hans Castorp, a young engineer who goes to visit his tubercular cousin, Joachim Ziemssen at a tuberculosis sanatorium in Switzerland, The Berghof, "The Magic Mountain." Hans' last name Castorp perhaps alludes to the mythic twin Roman gods Castor and Pollux engendered in the close relationship between Hans and his cousin Joachim.  

Hans finds himself enjoying his sojourn at the sanatorium, mingling with the patients, conversing with his cousin and other convalescing characters, including the enigmatic Lodovico Settembrini, a secular humanist, whose persona is likely based on Thomas Mann himself, reflecting Mann's political and philosophical leanings as a German socialist and intellectual man-of-letters. Hans learns much in the philosophic antagonism between Settembrini and his antagonist, Leo Naphta, a Jew turned Jesuit, who leans toward Marxist totalitarianism.

It turns out that The Berghof becomes a comfortable and dreamlike, totally enchanting place for Hans Castorp who finds himself unable to cut short his visit and return home to face the world as a young engineer. Instead, he becomes enamored of a charming aristocratic Russian The Berghof on the Magic Mountainlady, Madame Clavdia Chauchat, and the Magic Mountain itself. Moreover, it soon becomes obvious that Hans may also be infected with the tubercle bacillus, increasing the complexity of his situation and providing him with a valid reason to stay on the Magic Mountain. Castorp stays at the Berghof for seven years and only leaves to join the German army with the advent of World War I.

The novel provides a vehicle for Mann to discuss the advances and mysteries in medicine — for example, the use of x-rays, which had only been discovered in 1895 by the physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, and Sigmund Freud's development of psychoanalysis and his theory of the unconscious. The novel also serves as a medium to describe complex personal interelationships and social interactions in society at large, and even more profoundly, the toll of diseases and human suffering, ultimately death and dying, as metaphors for man's existence, journey and final exit on this planet.

The Magic Mountain has been the subject of discussion in medicine and philosophical publications, including The Pharos, the Journal of the Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society during the 1980s and 1990s. In one interview before his death in 1955, Thomas Mann felt flattered that his book had been discussed in so many intellectual circles and that so many interpretations had been ascribed to his magnum opus, The Magic Mountain.

    2. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe in Ten Volumes. 1904. The Cameo Edition. Everyone is familiar with Poe's classic Tales and well-known poems and short stories, such as The Raven, The Oblong Box, The Pit and the Pendulum, The Cask of Amontillado, The Tell-Tale Heart, The Black Cat, and The Fall of the House of Usher. But Volume II of this collection contains a rare gem, Narrative of A. Gordon Pym. This is Poe's only full length novel and in a quirk of literary fate, it is one of his least known works. However, the reader will discover that many of the sub-plots contained in this novel have been widely used in classic adventure tales by a myriad of authors and Hollywood movies. This exquisite work is highly recommended.

Queen of Night by Alan Savage    3. Queen of Night by Alan Savage. 1993. Little, Brown & Company. This 432-page, historic novel recounts the story of Queen Joanna I of Naples (1326 -1382). Joanna was related by blood to both the enterprising noble House Anjou (i.e., Angevins) and the Royal Valois dynasties of France. As a child she was Duchess of Calabria and upon the death of her grandfather, King Robert of Naples, in 1343, she became the Countess of Provence and Queen of Naples as well as titular Queen of Jerusalem, until her death in 1382. She was also deemed the most beautiful woman in Europe and the most treacherous, implicated in the death of her first husband, Andrew, a Hungarian Prince of the blood and also Duke of Calabria,

This novel is enthralling and magnificently written in elegant prose that at times reaches poetic eloquence. The superb narrative captivates the essence of the times in the descriptive settings, the passionate sentiments expressed by the characters, their dialogues, and the accurate description of Medieval historic events entwined to the historic characters. The book reflects accurately the splendor, romance and brutality of the era. The scholarship of the author is evident because, for the most part, the depicted events are chronologically accurate, and the characters are real, historical figures — except, of course, for the other main protagonist in this historic and titillating drama. I refer to the fictitious Richilde Benoit, Joanna's loyal maiden and alter-ego in her court in Naples. It is the adventures of Richilde, acting as Joanna's ambassadress that bring to life all the important and historic events that took place in Europe during this period.

And so we not only learn the intrigue, romance and betrayal in the Court of Naples but also the events that shaped European history during this time: The Hundred Years War between England and France with the adventures of the Black Prince in France and Aquitaine, including a vivid description oQueen Joanna of Naples (Wappers)f the Battle of Poitier, and the capture and ransom of King John the Good; the terrible Black Death; the pillage, plundering, rape and savagery of the Jacquerie peasant uprising; the Western Schism and the pageantry, intrigue, and corruption of the court of Clement VI in Avignon during the "Babylonian Captivity"; the curious story of the enigmatic politician, Cola di Rienzo (1313-1354), the Papal envoy, who became the popular and anachronistic demagogue as "Tribune of the Roman People," and wanted to revive the ancient Roman Republic, but instead perished in the hands of the once adoring, always fickle and duplicitous, and now enraged and brutal mob of Medieval Rome; the Christian Reconquista of Spain and the workings of the harem in the Moorish court of Alhambra in Granada; the revolting inquisition that inflicted pain and torture to elicit confessions in those accused of being heretics or witches, etc.

One word of caution is now in order: Through all of these adventures, the author becomes a bit prurient, and in a few occasions even sadistic, in his narrative, which may be excessive for some readers, even offensive to others, particularly women. We must recognize, though, the period of which he writes and the attitudes of the epoch, and we must prod through over these licentiousness and over-sensualized occasions as novelistic license and continue with the engaging narrative!

Fiction and cohesion of the drama are maintained with the adventures, sex, trials and tribulations of the brave, loyal, indomitable, and beautiful Richilde, while sensual Queen Joanna is the anchor in this historic and sensual masterpiece. The book is a veritable cliffhanger that the reader will have difficulty putting aside until the surprise ending. This historical novel, illuminating an obscure but intriguing epoch in European history, with its poetic narrative, verve, and finesse is highly recommended for adults interested in Medieval history and adventure.

Ottoman    4. Ottoman by Alan Savage. 1991. Time Warner. Ottoman is a fictionalized historic novel of a renegade English family and their male descendants, who while preserving some of their English mores, nevertheless, served faithfully the fierce and treacherous Ottoman sultans, from the time just preceding the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 to the eve of the decisive Turkish defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

While the English family of the Hawkwoods, through five generations, and many of the characters they come in contact with, are fictitious, the major historic figures and the principal events that take place in this novel are historic.

John Hawkwood, an English artillerist and his family arrive in 1448 to the magnificent and dazzling city of Constantinople to serve the good Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Paleologos. The Greeks, though, turned out to be corrupt and treacherous, and due to circumstances beyond his control, John Hawkwood is forced to flee Byzantium. He ends up being captured by the Ottomans and serving the fierce Sultan Mohammed I, who is bent on conquering Constantinople. As master gunner, the first Hawkwood builds the gigantic cannon that breaches the massive walls of Constantinople in 1453.

During the assault, Emperor Constantine dies courageously at the walls with his small army of 5,000 defenders. The city is sacked; the treasures plundered, and the victorious sultan becomes known as Mohammed the Conqueror. Thereafter, the huge and undefeated armies of the sultan, including his magnificent Janissaries, continue their Western conquests — from Constantinople to Sofia, Belgrade, Bucharest, Wallachia, and Hungary, all along the Danube, to be defeated only at the impregnable walls of Vienna. In the East, the Ottomans defeat the Arabs, the Syrian Mamlukes, and the Persians. The Ottomans are greatly feared and seemed virtually unstoppable.

Despite treachery, savagery, massacres, pillage, and plunder, the various Hawkwood men served the Turkish sultans faithfully as generals, admirals, even as ambassadors to Christendom, but they are all at heart fierce Ottoman Restored wall of Constantinoplewarriors. Their women are beautiful but captive slaves, who become wives or concubines, and by in large fulfill their roles as submissive sexual partners. Five successive "Hawk Pashas" served the all powerful "Padishah" Sultans of Constantinople (photo, right) — i.e. Mahomet the Conqueror (r. 1451-1481), Bayazid II (r. 1481-1512), Selim I the Grim (r. 1512-1520), Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566), and Selim II the Drunkard (r. 1566-1574). Adventures take the Hawkwoods to meet King Louis XI and King Francis I of France; Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later Pope Alexander VI, and his son Cesare and daughter Lucrezia, as well as the greatly feared Ottoman corsair Barbarossa. Jealous pashas, plotting Grand Viziers, slavish eunuchs, and the intrigues of Roxelana, the ambitious Russian wife of Suleiman, add to the intrigues and suspense of the story.

But in the end, the fifth Hawk Pasha is dishonorably betrayed by the Sultan Selim II, who orders a massacre of the Venetian defenders (and inhabitants) of the captured island of Cyprus. Hawk Pasha had negotiated a peaceful surrender and had promised the brave defenders safe conduct on his word of honor, as promised by the sultan. The betrayal is too much for Hawk Pasha, and with his family, including his supportive Venetian wife, Barbara Cornaro, a niece of the Venetian Doge, Alvise Mocenigo I (r. 1550-1557), they escape to Venice.
Crypt of Don John of Austria
With the blessings of the Doge Mocenigo and Pope Pius V (r. 1566-1572), the last Hawk Pasha joins the combined Christian fleet of Venetian, papal, Genoese, and Spanish galleys, which are being assembled in Messina. The large fleet is commanded by Don Juan of Austria, the half-brother of King Philip II of Spain. (Tomb of Don John of Austria at El Escorial in Spain, photo, left) Guided by the advise of the former naval Ottoman commander, Hawk Pasha, the Christian fleet, although outnumbered, valiantly defeats decisively the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. The last Hawk Pasha thus returns to Christendom and settles with his family happily in Venice.

This is an excellent historic novel but not for the squeamish; there is plenty of sex, blood, gore, and betrayal, reflecting the mores and violence of the times. It is recommended for all readers interested in the history of the period written with flare, passion and the usual novelistic license. (4/5 rating)Moghul by Alan Savage

    5. Moghul by Alan Savage. 1991. Moghul is a historic novel of adventure, sex, and brutality of epic proportions. As with Ottoman, Alan Savage's previous dazzling adventure tome, this novel concerns and revolves around a fictitious (and not quite) renegade English family of male descendants, the Blunts, who while preserving some of their English identity through several generations, nevertheless, serve faithfully the ruling Moghul dynasty of Northern India (Hindustan) and Afghanistan. The time span is close to that of the chronicles of Savage's previous novel, Ottoman, a time period concurrent with the late Renaissance in the West (spanning the late 15th through the early 17th centuries) with which Savage seems to be quite conversant. See Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review posted on this website.

    6. Aztec by Gary Jennings. 1980. Epic of the fall of the Aztec Empire, as it fatally clashes with the advent of the conquistadors. Please see the fascinating review of this book by a reader in the commentary section below.

C. Historic Novels by Colleen McCullouch:

    1. The First Man in Rome. 1990. William Morrow and Company, Inc. Historic novel. This is a wonderful introduction to the "Masters of Rome" series of historic novels by famed author Colleen McCullough. The first tome in this series, The First Man in Rome, at 896 pages, including magnificent maps, glossary, even sketch portraits of many of the main characters, is incredibly well-researched. Crisp writing, eloquent prose, exhilarating reading, spellbinding plots and intrigue — are all parts and parcel of this literary, unfolding, historic drama. The historic novel would have been a complete masterpiece had not First Man in Romethe author fallen head over heels for the main protagonist, Gaius Marius, to the detriment of other historic figures who deserved better, particularly when the author boasted of historic veracity. Indeed, McCullough's scholarship is outstanding, and her literary abilities certain; the problem lies elsewhere, apparently her politics and her prejudicial bias for the Populares faction at the expense of the Optimates and the historical veracity she claimed.

Thus, to cover her political leanings, the author does not use those terms at all in her novel, as she "does not want to give the impression that there were formal political parties." The reality is she does not want to make her liberal leanings too obvious to her readership. Had she used those helpful and historic political terms, it would have made it too obvious that at least in her mind, with few exceptions, all the popular leaders and political demagogues pandering to the mob were the good guys with nobility of purpose and good intentions (e.g., not only Marius, but Saturninus and later Sulpicius, Cinna, and Carbo), while the Optimate leaders and the members of the old conservative-leaning families, those upholding the mos maiorum (i.e.,"the established order of things and the 'established customs of ancestors") were, almost uniformly, the bad guys (e.g., Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was turned into an incompetent general and undeservingly nicknamed "Piggle-Wiggle"; his son Metellus Pius made to stutter and called derisively "the Piglet"; the Caepios, with some truth, are severely turned into despicable villains). Lucius Cornelius Sulla is turned into a Dr. Jekyl and (mostly) a Mr. Hyde, a homosexual poisoner and serial killer with misogynistic tendencies and prone to pathological violence. In book two of this series, The Grass Crown, Sulla is even made to kill by poisoning a member of his party and mentor, Caecilius Metelus Numidicus, enraged in a completely fictional and implausible scenario!

Needless to say, those readers attuned only to historic melodrama, but not necessarily "qualified to judge" in the historic arena and oblivious to historic reality and political sentiment, will find no fault with this book and may even misconstrue my "parochial" criticism as undeserved. These valid caveats still do not detract me from recommending this book (4 out of 5 stars). Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "The First Man in Rome — The Apotheosis of Gaius Marius!"

    2. The Grass Crown. 1990. William Morrow and Company, Inc. Historic novel. The magnificent "Masters of Rome" series of historic fiction by The Grass Crown Dust Jacketnovelist Colleen McCullough continues down the annals of the Roman Republic with the notable careers of Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Aemeilius Scaurus, Metellus Numidicus, Metellus Pius, and Marcus Livius Drusus. This second tome at 894 pages also contains magnificent maps, improved glossary, and sketch portraits of many of the main characters. The scholarship still astonishes as does the crisp writing and exhilarating reading in this historic drama. The informative and elegant correspondence to and from Publius Rutilius Rufus, now expanded to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, continues in The Grass Crown. As discussed in the full review, I recommend this second tome with some caveats and assign it 4 out 5 stars. Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "The Grass Crown — Ancient Rome: Marius vs Sulla and the Marsian Wars!"

     3. Fortune's Favorites. 1993. William Morrow and Company, Inc. Historic novel. Fortune's Favorites is the third installment of the fascinating Masters of Rome series of historical novels by famed Australian novelist Colleen McCullough. The 878-page book opens in 83 B.C., as the triumphant general, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, returns from the East after his successful campaign against King Mithridates VI of Pontus. The book ends with events taking place at approximately 69 B.C. surrounding the rivalry and rise of Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus, while young Julius Caesar is biding his time and foreshadows a political and military career superior to them both, a worthy descendant of Venus and Aeneas! As discussed in the full review, I recommend this third tome with some caveats and assign it 4 out 5 stars. Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "Fortune's Favorites in Ancient Rome: Sulla, Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar"

   Caesar's Women by Colleen McCullough  4. Caesar's Women. 1997. William Morrow and Company, Inc. Historic novel. Caesar's Women is the fourth installment of the Masters of Rome historical book series by novelist Colleen McCullough. This 696-page tome covers the eight years of the Late Roman Republic from 67 B.C. to 59 B.C., including the revolt of Aemilius Lepidus; the Conspiracy of Catilina and the passing of the Senate's Ultimate Decree; the curious episode of the Consul Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (also an augur) withdrawing to his house to watch the stars and cancel the legislative acts of his very active fellow Consul Julius Caesar; the sacrilege of Clodius Pulcher, and Caesar's consequent remark that his wife must be above suspicion, etc. The main characters are Julius Caesar, who is mostly in Rome, intriguing and womanizing, while ironically presiding over Rome's civic religion as supreme Pontifex Maximus; Marcus Licinius Crassus, the plutocrat; Marcus Tullius Cicero, the great advocate who becomes consul at the time of the Catilina crisis; Marcus Porcius Cato, the unyielding politician and stoic philosopher; Publius Clodius, the young iconoclastic rogue; Marcus Junius Brutus, the studious youngster and heir to the Caepio fortune, who is hen-pecked by his mother Servilia; and of course, Pompey Magnus, who is at this time unquestionably the First Man of Rome.

Caesar's Women includes Caesar's mother, Aurelia; his mistress, Servilia; his beautiful and dutiful daughter, Julia; his second and discarded wife, Pompeia Sulla; and the Vestal Virgins. We also have a glimpse at the lives and personalities of Terentia Varro (Cicero's wealthy and imperious wife); Fulvia (Clodius wife, politically inclined and granddaughter of Gaius Gracchus); and Clodia (Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer's wife, mistress of the lyric poet Catullus, and possible poisoner of her own husband, an ex-consul and conservative senator). I am disappointed somewhat with this volume and as discussed in the full review, I recommend this fourth tome with significant caveats and assign it 3 out 5 stars. Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "Caesar's Women — McCullough's Idolatry and Politics in Ancient Rome."Caesar — Let the Dice Fly!

     5. Caesar — Let the Dice Fly. 1997. William Morrow and Company, Inc. Historic novel. This 664-page tome is the fifth installment of the Masters of Rome historical novel series by author Colleen McCullough, and encompasses the period from 54 B.C., when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul and Britannia, and ends with the heinous and treacherous assassination of Pompey the Great in Egypt in 48 B.C.

The conquest of Gaul is recounted with novelistic license, but it is nevertheless enthralling reading. The battle of Alesia is well told, the circumvallations and battlements are well explicated and the surrendering of Vercingetorix is poignantly depicted. While Caesar was far away in Gaul, he kept himself informed of events in Rome through his paid agents as well as letters from his son-in-law, Pompey Magnus, who had now been married for six years to Caesar's lovely daughter, Julia. But then suddenly Julia dies following childbirth and his political link to Caesar is severed. Moreover, Marcus Licinius Crassus, the third member of the Triumvirate, died at the hands of the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 B.C., ending whatever reconciliation was possible between the two great Romans, Caesar and Pompey.

Caesar's military genius was cultivated solely for political gain and the attainment of supreme power in Rome. When Sulla marched on Rome, he had a legitimate grievance against the State. Caesar did not, and by crossing the Rubicon ("Let the Dice Fly") and marching on Rome, Julius Caesar placed his own welfare and dignitas ahead of the welfare of Rome.

The tome then proceeds rapidly through the civil war between Pompey's and Caesar's factions and ends with the tragic assassination of Pompey in Egypt. As I wrote in the review of the previous tome, I am again disappointed somewhat and as discussed in the full review, I recommend this fifth tome with significant caveats and assign it 3 out 5 stars. Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "Caesar — The Conquest of Gaul, Civil War, and Death of Pompey the Great."

     The October Horse6. The October Horse. 2002. Simon and Schuster. Historic novel. This 792-page tome is the sixth installment of the Masters of Rome series of historic novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough. It spans the turbulent years of Roman history from 48 B.C. to 41 B.C. Beginning with Julius Caesar's campaign in Egypt and his romantic and political relationship with Cleopatra VII, Pharaoh of Egypt, the book proceeds with Caesar's war against the Republicans in Africa, led by the indomitable Marcus Porcius Cato, Metellus Pius Scipio, King Juba of Numidia, and Titus Labienus. In Spain and on the high seas, the Republicans are led by Pompey Magnus' sons, the maritime admirals, Gnaeus Pompey Jr. and Sextus Pompey. The book proceeds with the victories of Julius Caesar and his establishment of a virtual tyranny in Rome as dictator perpetuus, which ultimately ends with his assassination on the Ides of March in 44 B.C.

The idolatry of Julius Caesar by the author continues in this book, as she lavishes praise over her idol, his untarnished dignitas, his unbounded auctoritas, his perfect physique, his brilliant brain, etc., to the detriment of the book, and the entire Masters of Rome series, which has otherwise been well researched and dramatized.

In fact, her prejudices, historical bias, and her infatuation with Julius Caesar in the last three volumes — which surpasses by far that which she incurred with Gaius Marius, the hero of her first two books — have become even more serious, detracting more and more from her narrative and, regretfully, from her historical accuracy. The distortion of the conduct and true character of many of the opposing historic figures, usually the political enemies of her heroes, as I have outlined, is particularly disturbing. The student of history should therefore read additional non-fictional sources to clarify facts and personalities, and correct misconceptions that may have inadvertently crept in from depending solely on this author for accurate historical characterization.

In conclusion, this tome can only be recommended with the same caveats I have more or less delineated for each of the previous books in this Masters of Rome series or as entertaining reading. Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "The October Horse — Civil War in Ancient Rome and the Death Knell of the Republic!"Antony and Cleopatra

    7. Antony and Cleopatra. 2007. Simon and Schuster. Historic novel. This is the seventh and final book in the Masters of Rome series of historic novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough. This tome covers the years 41-27 B.C. of the late Roman Republic. At 567 pages, it is shorter than the previous books in the series. Gaius Octavian, now calling himself Caesar Octavianus divi filius, contends with his fellow Triumvir, Marcus Antonius, and Antony's lover, Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt.

In all of her books of this series McCullough's characters speak in a modern tone (which at times becomes needlessly vulgar). Characteristically, she makes no attempt to have speakers sound Shakespearean or archaic, but in this last tome, she is a bit more chatty, uses more dialogues, and is generally less informative of other historical events taking place contemporaneously. We are basically in tune, almost exclusively, with the fewer main characters left standing following Rome's civil wars, battles, and proscriptions.

Events covered in this tome include: events following the defeat and dramatic suicides of Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C.; the ensuing rivalry of Mark Antony and Octavian; the control of the seas and depredations of Sextus Pompey on Roman grain shipments; the land and maritime victories of Octavian's alter ego, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa; the naval defeat of Sextus Pompey, Pompey's youngest son,  and his death, the last of the great Republicans; Mark Antony's misadventures in the East and his debacle expedition against the Parthians; Antony's emotional deterioration and dependence on Cleopatra for money, supplies, and moral support; Octavian's pragmatic and ruthless political partnership with his ambitious wife, Livia Drusilla; Antony's divorce of the revered Octavia and the reading of his "treasonous" will by Octavian in the Roman Senate; the downfall of the Second Triumvirate and war in 33 B.C.; the shameful but decisive defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the invasion of Egypt by Octavian in 30 B.C. with the defeat and suicide of Antony; the conquest of Alexandria, and capture of Cleopatra, who also commits suicide; and the complete victory of Octavian, who in 27 B.C. is honored with the title "Augustus" by the Roman Senate.

Read Dr. Miguel Faria's complete book review entitled "Antony and Cleopatra — The Battle of Actium and the End of Hellenistic Egypt."


D. Spy Thrillers:

    1. Tinker, Taylor, Soldier, Spy by John Le Carre. 1974. The Franklin Library edition.

    2. Smiley's People by John Le Carre. 1979. The Franklin Library edition.

The Spy Who Came In From the Cold by John Le Carre    3. The Spy Who Came in From the Cold by John Le Carre. 1964. Coward-McCann Publishers. This novel was also brilliantly adapted into a movie starring Sir Richard Burton, Claire Bloom, and Osker Werner. 

Le Carre is a great writer, though at times difficult to read. I enjoyed the books and the movie adaptations of his intriguing novels, but I would be remiss if I didn't point out that he seems to apply a disturbing moral relativism between the free world of the West and the evil tyrannical communism of the East, as if the political philosophies of East and West were equal. Also, Le Carre tries to portray the novel's agents on both sides as if they played by the same rules; they did not. In reality, the KGB was almost always the agreesor and MI6 and the CIA played a mostly defensive game. Moreover, except the character of Geoge Smilley, whom Le Carre treats decently both as a professional and a human being, all of the MI6 spies and spy masters seem to be flawed individuals who cared nothing for the ideal of freedom that should be motivating them. One wonders why these individuals would be risking their lives with relatively little pay and little recognition, if they were as flawed as Le Carre portrays them in his novels.


VIII. History:

    1. The Story of Civilization by Will Durant. This 12-volume set includes the following tomes: Volume 1: Our Oriental Heritage, 1935; Volume 2: The Life of Greece, 1939; Volume 3: Caesar and Christ, 1944; Volume 4: The Age of Faith, 1950; Volume 5: The Renaissance, 1953; Volume 6: The Reformation, 1957; Volume 7: The Age of Reason Begins, 1961; Volume 8: The Age of Louis XIV, 1963; Volume 9: The Age of Voltaire, 1965; Volume 10: Rousseau and Revolution, 1967; Volume 11: The Age of Napoleon, 1975. Volume 12: The Lessons of History, 1968. And, beginning with the 7th volume in this series, the name of Ariel Durant (i.e., Will Durant's wife) is added as an author on each of the subsequent volumes. This is an exquisite narrative, a marvelous rendition of the story of civilization. The reader may not always agree with the lessons Will Durant derives from his well-researched historical facts, but his wit and flair for writing and his style are indisputable, those of a master craftsman and storyteller! This man's immense knowledge of history has resulted in a distillation of wisdom that exudes from the pages of each of his volumes in this monumental history of civilization. We cannot help but be enlightened after perusing each and every volume of this spectacular set!The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbons

    2. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. 1946. Easton Press edition, 1974.  Gibbon's magnificent work is divided into six volumes in this collection. It is no wonder that most learned persons have heard of the name of Edward Gibbon or at the very least the name of his magnum opus, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. At the time of the publication of this work, the Europeans were enthralled with this historical thriller. I believe the same thing would occur if the modern reader would only pause from his busy existence to read this magnificent, historical saga. It seems that many academics have commented on Gibbon's alleged criticism of Christianity as the culprit for the fall of the Roman Empire. After reading these volumes twice, I cannot say that I agree with this assessment. While Christianity did have a softening influence on the military mind of the Romans, there were myriads of reasons for the fall of the Empire. Perhaps the only valid criticism of Gibbon's work is the fact that he did not recognize the importance of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, as a bulwark against the Eastern barbarians, from the Goths and Bulgars to the more recent newcomers, the Islamic hordes from Mecca, Medina, and the Arabian desert inspired by the prophet Mohammed. More attention should be given to Gibbon's admonition that civilization is only a generation away from barbarism, and that there is no guarantee that Western civilization could survive a renewed, resurgent savagery from the East. 

    3. A History of the English Speaking People by Sir Winston S.  Churchill. 1956. Dorset Press edition. This collection is divided into four volumes entitled: Volume 1: The Birth of Britain; Volume 2: The New World; Volume 3: The Age of Revolution; Volume 4: The Great Democracies. This is a marvelous compilation of the contribution of the Anglo-American peoples to civilization. Needless to say, Churchill's personality reverberates in these pages with his wit, aphorisms, sometimes with humor, always with the historical knowledge and wisdom of a giant statesman.

    4. Soldiers of Fortune — The Story of the Mamlukes, 1250-1517 by Sir John Bagot Glubb. 1973. I list this book here not only because it is an historic masterpiece, but also because this book fills a huge gap of knowledge in world history. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

The World of Herodotus    5. The World of Herodotus by Aubrey De Sélincourt. 1962. Little, Brown and Company. This is an excellent book. Aubrey de Selincourt, was a scholarly Englishman, the translator of the Penguin editions of both Herodotus and Livy, the master historians of ancient Greece and Rome, respectively. My copy is a 1962 first edition of the book published by Little, Brown and Co. The front cover of the dust jacket is black near the spine and then light blue on the rest of the cover. It has a picture of the famous trademark silver coin of the famous owl of Athena symbolizing wisdom and repeatedly coined in ancient Athens, a center of commerce as well as intellectual life in the fifth century B.C..

Aubrey de Selincourt was not only a master translator of ancient Greek and Latin, but a connoisseur of classical ancient cultures. His World of Herodotus does not only encompass geographical Greece, but also Persia, Egypt, and Asia Minor. For example, we learn about Solon of Athens, King Croessus of Lydia, Cyrus the Great of Persia, etc. We also learn about the intellectual climate, philosophy, the mores, the literature, and the arts of the times, as well as wars and clashes of civilization. In the process, we also learn that Herodotus was not the naive and gullible storyteller historian we have been led to believe, but an erudite scholar and premier historian who earned and deserves the title of Father of History. When possible, Herodotus pursued witnesses for his sources of information, but he also winked at us, when he related some of his more fantastic tales. Herodotus savored life and learning, as does his narrator de Selincourt. Herodotus described Persian civilization not with the contempt and condescension of a Greek enemy, but, surprisingly, with sympathy, humanity, and even admiration. Beginning with Greece and then Persia, De Selincourt follows Herodotus down the path of history, war, and contention, leading to the epic and climactic clash of Greek and Persian civilizations.

This is a superb and enthralling volume, and I fully agree with another reviewer, who with insight wrote, "[this book] puts to shame most histories written now, which tend to be either condescending or chillingly post-modern (often both). It's refreshing to read a historian who loves his subject and isn't afraid to enthusiastically share his love with his readers." Indeed, this is the book to read, if one really wants to avoid modern cliches and instead desires to be dazzled and immersed in the classical zeitgeist of the time, as marveously recounted by the Father of History and explained by a master writer, translator, and premier classical scholar.The Galleys at Lepanto

    6. The Galleys at Lepanto by John Beeching. 1982. This marvelous book is so well researched and mellifluously narrated that it reads almost like a fairy tale or an epic romance of yore, elegantly scribed in poetic prose. Foremost among the knights-errant in this tale of chivalry is Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and half-brother of the stern King Philip II of Spain. The characters come to life as they are vividly described in the enthralling narrative, thus once begun, the tome is very difficult to put down. Intrigue, perils, and tales of heroism galore at Rhodes, Malta, and Cyprus await the reader before the denouement at the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

    7. Suleiman the Magnificent — Scourge of Heaven by Antony Bridge. 1966. This book is an engaging, but not exhaustive, narrative of the major events in the life and times of the great Ottoman Sultan Suleiman (r. 1520-1566) that reads like a charming storybook. See Dr. Miguel Faria's review of this book on this website.

Written and Reviewed by Dr. Miguel Faria

Copyright© 2011 Miguel A. Faria, Jr., M.D.

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Boris Berezovsky, RIP

Discussed and mentioned under two books discussed here, "Death of a dissident" and "Comrade J," the BBC has just noted the obituary of a great Russian, the "oligarch" Boris Berezovsky.

"Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky found dead, March 23, 2013, BBC"

"The exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky has been found dead at his home in Surrey. The circumstances of the death of the 67-year-old - a wanted man in Russia, and an opponent of President Vladimir Putin - are not yet known.
A former Kremlin power-broker whose fortunes declined under Mr Putin, Mr Berezovsky emigrated to the UK in 2000.
Last year, he lost a £3bn ($4.7bn) damages claim against Chelsea Football Club owner Roman Abramovich. Mr Berezovsky claimed he had been intimidated by Mr Abramovich into selling shares in Russian oil giant Sibneft for a 'fraction of their true worth'".

"The allegations were completely rejected by the London Commercial Court judge, who called Mr Berozovsky an 'inherently unreliable' witness.

"Diminished wealth

"Mr Berezovsky had made his fortune in the 1990s selling imported Mercedes as well as Russian-made cars. Later owning Sibnet and as primary shareholder in Russia's main television channel, he supported Boris Yeltsin's rise to power.

"Mr Berezovsky survived numerous assassination attempts, including a bomb that decapitated his chauffeur. During the later years of Yeltsin's presidency, Mr Berezovsky was part of the leader's inner circle as deputy secretary of Russia's security council. He then played a role in Mr Putin's rise in the late-1990s, before the new president moved to curb the political ambitions of Russia's oligarchs..."

Berlin 1961

Berlin 1961 is primarily the story of one year, two world leaders, and the tremendous consequences for actions taken then. No story can be told, however, without relating what came before and after; hence the Bay of Pigs, tidbits of WWII, and the physically divided world symbolized in Berlin are covered, but not overly so. Frederick Kempe uses many sources to deliver public speeches as well as private conversations, hence supplying the reader with both the strategies and motivations behind the two major players, President Kennedy and Khrushchev. Yet some minor leaders have major influence; in particular, East Germany’s leader Ulbricht is the driving force behind the urgency to close the border between Communist East Germany and free West Berlin, while President Kennedy struggles between the SLOBS (soft on Berliners) and the hawks and West Germany’s Chancellor Adenauer.

At the end of WWII all four major powers were collectively in charge of the four zones in Berlin, the former capital of Germany. East Berliners traveled daily to the more prosperous West Berlin and worked and returned home at night. Many others predictably did not return back to the totalitarian communist world: between the end of WWII and 1961, when the border was sealed by East Germany, some 2.8 million people had left Communist GDR for the West. East Germany’s population was only about 17 million while the West was 60 million. Ulbricht is able to persuade Khrushchev that the border must be sealed to stop the flow of refugees or the GDR will cease to exist one day. Khrushchev’s dilemma is how to perform this illegal act without going to war with the US?

President Kennedy supplied the critical weak link, according to the author with his many sources. Kennedy’s poor, half-hearted attempt at Cuba’s overthrow in the Bay of Pigs and the Vienna meeting between Kennedy and Khrushchev convinced the latter that the president was weak and inexperienced—which all accounts likewise so indicate—that he felt emboldened to allow the indomitable and irritating Ulbricht to seal the border. “Never in American history has a man talked so big and acted so little,” claimed Nixon, who lost the closest electoral contest since 1886 (52) TO Kennedy. Reston also agreed that Kennedy “talked like Churchill and acted like Chamberlain.”

Moreover, Khrushchev’s success with the US doing nothing after the Wall was installed so overwhelmed him that he stationed Soviet missiles aimed at the US in Cuba. Kennedy finally made his stand and Khrushchev backed down, yet the author makes the case that the Cuban Missile Crisis would never have occurred, had not Kennedy shown himself to be so weak that Khrushchev actually believed he could accomplish something this incredible.

So why did President Kennedy not have the US military simply tear down the barricades put up by Stassi, East German police, and others overnight August 13, 1961? Berlin was surrounded by East Germany with USSR and GDR troops outnumbering the four powers in Berlin by roughly 11,000 to 350,000. Then there was the thought that since USSR had suffered so many losses in WWII (27 million dead), they had the right to remain over conquered land. The question of whether we were really allies or merely enemies of the same enemy—NAZI Germany—seems relevant since the US was always opposed to a communist dictatorship and vice versa and now we both settled back into our inevitable roles as adversaries. The author does not delve into this question however. (I have never fully understood how one enemy like NAZI Germany was worse than another enemy USSR enough to have us side with one over the other. It always seemed a win/win for them to be fighting, but alas imperialistic Japan forced us into this war).

Conversely, the US was committed to Berlin’s survival and had shown this to the world with the 1948 Berlin Airlift that saved 2 million West Berlin residents from starvation. Moreover the US had nuclear superiority, although it is not certain that USSR was fully convinced of this with their own claims of a “hydrogen bomb with a yield of 50 million tons of TNT.” Was this more of Khrushchev’s bombastic bragging? Most likely. De Gaul warned Kennedy about Khrushchev and his air of theatrics and threats, yet ultimately Kennedy was cowed and terribly weakened after the Vienna meeting with his Soviet nemesis.

Ultimately, President Kennedy had to deal with the very relevant question of whether we should risk millions of US lives in a nuclear confrontation over Berlin. Kennedy decided not; consequently, Khrushchev gave the go ahead for Ulbricht and the wall went up between the two Germanys and remained thus until another president came along.

Unlike Kennedy, President Reagan did not accept the status quo, détente, or the inevitability that the millions trapped behind the iron curtain would have to always remain prisoners in a totalitarian society where individuals were merely state slaves. “We win; they lose” is how he summed up the battle between the free West and the captive East. Reagan set out to win the battle against the USSR, and he did with help from Poland and even Gorbachev, who wanted to reform the USSR while preserving it but would not simply murder Soviet citizens or their satellites.

Seldom is my opinion completely revised after reading a book, but thus far this is the case. I had always judged Kennedy on his words and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Now I must adjust to his actions. It appears he was simply outmatched. Age, which many liberals and media pundits attempted to see as a deterrent when it came to President Reagan, actually displayed his wisdom and unwavering conviction as the free world won the battle against “the evil empire.” Kennedy’s youth is seen more a weakness here rather than a strength, despite the fawning media’s obsession with his youth.

The book is fairly objective, I thought. Both sides on the Berlin question are presented. The inherent problems with the various tactics are shown. It is about 500 pages, which may turn off some readers, but the relatively concise, focused chapters keep the flow moving fairly well. I never felt I was bogging through chapters; my interest was heightened throughout the book, and I had much to ponder. I still do.

JFK and Khrushchev, 1961

Kempe, Frederick (2011). Berlin 1961. Penguin Group (USA)–Great Review Koba!

1961 was a decisive year, the Bay of Pigs (April), the Vienna Summit (June), the Berlin Wall (August), etc. It was also the year of the arrest of British spy and traitor George Blake (MI6), who had betrayed a number of Western agents and the Berlin Tunnel operation to the Soviets, as recounted in Flawed Patriot — The Rise and Fall of CIA Legend Bill Harvey by Bayard Stockton. 2006.

Bill Harvey was our American James Bond, but unfortunately his life was complex and his fate tragic. Harvey unmasked Kim Philby, arguably the greatest Russian spy and traitor of the cold war. Harvey also was the CIA station chief in Berlin in the mid-1950s and the mastermind behind the Berlin Tunnel secret operation, which tapped Russian military communications but which had been betrayed by Blake.

Blake was also responsible for exposing Soviet Major P. S. Popov who was an invaluable Western agent stationed in Vienna executed in 1960. Arrested himself after exposure by Polish defector Michael Goleniewski and tried in May 1961, Blake escaped from prison in 1966 with the help of the IRA and fled to the USSR.

George Blake (born 1922) is still alive at 89 and an unrepentant communist living on a pension in Russia. He proudly wears his Soviet medals. In 2010 Blake asserted that the "American Empire" will crumble and "One day I believe that the majority of governments will voluntarily choose the Communist model."

Returning to Kennedy and Khrushchev, at the Vienna summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, JFK expressed the view that the West must have access to West Berlin, and that the West would not acquiesce to Nikita Khrushchev's intimation of a border closure of West Berlin.

Khrushchev told Kennedy, "Force will be met by force. If the US wants war, that's its problem." "It's up to the US to decide whether there will be war or peace." "The decision to sign a peace treaty is firm and irrevocable, and the Soviet Union will sign it in December if the US refuses an interim agreement." To this, Kennedy replied, "Then, Mr. Chairman, there will be a war. It will be a cold, long winter."

Khrushchev came away from the Summit convinced he had prevailed over a weak and inexperienced leader. Khrushchev commented that Kennedy "looked not only anxious, but deeply upset…I hadn’t meant to upset him. I would have liked very much for us to part in a different mood. But there was nothing I could do to help him…Politics is a merciless business.” (Berlin 1961; pp. 225-257)

Three months later, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, emboldened by Kennedy’s weakness at the Bay of Pigs, reinforced by the performance at the Summit, ordered the construction of the Berlin Wall in defiance of the American President's stance. Thus the fiasco of the Bay of Pigs invasion and the bellicose stance of Khrushchev vis a vis JFK, perceived as a weak and indecisive president– led directly to the Cuban Missile Crisis eighteen months later in October 1962, and brought the U.S. and the Soviet Union to the very brink of nuclear war.

Again, thank you for an excellent review, Koba. Inspired, I could not help but commenting further! MAF

Confessions of a Spy by Pete Earley

1985 was called the year of the spy, and this easily readable book documents why. For as it covers Alderich Ames’ crimes, a host of others both familiar—Walker, Pelton, Chin—and some not so familiar—Lonetree, Conrad, and a few other Americans and Russian spies are sprinkled throughout the book.

What kind of man betrays his country, his coworkers, and the foreign agents directly under Ames care who have chosen to help the US fight the horror that was communism? Earley does a reasonable job of relating the facts without going too deep into the head of Ames; rather, he records Ames’ words. And such words of rationalization! Ames had no sympathy for the 25 men who he betrayed. Many were executed after 1-3 years of interrogation, while some inexplicably were not. Perhaps they had contacts in the corrupt communist system. Intelligence is often a guessing game, and we still do not know all of the answers, as the book aptly points out. Yet the fact remains: the US did not execute their traitors; the USSR did, and Ames knew this so his betrayal and theirs did not carry the same punishment. Moreover, USSR was an “evil empire”, not necessarily because of most of the people but because of the system. The US is not inherently evil, so the Ames rationalization that “they knew the risks” and that both sides were just as bad does not hold water morally either.

But at least 10 were executed directly because of Ames’ betrayal. The families of these men lost their apartments, jobs, reputation. GRU (Military Intel) refused General Polyakov’s request for an operation for his son in New York, so his son died (232). Others like Fedorenko and Tolkachev (59, 152) loved their country, but hated the corrupt communism and this was their one avenue to help change it. Fedorenko’s grandfather had spent 10 years in a prison camp for using newspaper as toilet paper that happened to have Stalin’s picture on it (59).

Another question that the author Earley goes to great effort to answer is why did Ames get away with his spying for so long? After all in 1985 several Russian agents working for the CIA were suddenly disappearing and by 1986 the CIA suspected a mole and formed a task force to find the mole. However, Ames was not caught until February 1994. The CIA did not want to believe that one of their own could be a spy, many different smokescreens—Howard, Lonetree and the other marine guards in Moscow, and even one called PROLOGUE manufactured by the KGB to protect Ames—threw CIA investigators in the wrong direction.

Still, there were so many easily identifiable reasons for Ames not to have this clearance in that particular arena over so much sensitive intelligence. His verifiable alcohol wrecks, driver’s license suspension, public passing out in Rome on the street all went ignored. (Today, in my experience this is not allowed at even a lower clearance). Incidents of Ames endangering lives by leaving a briefcase with friendly Russian agents pictures and names on a subway used by KGB, leaving a safe with Top Secret papers unsecured, improper sexual relations with CIA employees, living with a foreign female and not reporting it all should have called into question his having this clearance or raised suspicions. This was ignored. Periodic polygraphs did not ask about his sudden, obvious wealth (281), showed some deception later (282), and was ignored. Worse still, a sloppy background check on Rosario’s family’s wealth in Columbia relied on one informant who later was fired for false information, but this was never reported back. This could have easily cleared up the often used alibi of Ames that the excessive wealth he had come from his in-laws in Columbia.

Finances were so easy to track once the CIA finally decided to do so that it was astounding: He bought a $540,000 house without a mortgage (247), drove a new Jaguar XJ-6 (263), and routinely charged up $18-30,000 per month on credit cards (300). Rosario had more than 500 pairs of shoes and 150 boxes of pantyhose never even opened (300), all this on a GS-14 salary, less than $70,000 salary (300). Had the CIA reviewed Ames bank statements and credit card charges in 1985 as they finally did in 1992 (299-300) they would have seen his wealth suddenly increase. Also, as Agent Grimes discovered then too, the CIA had merely to look at his reported visit with KGB agent— who he supposedly trying to turn—and his bank account the next day to see thousands showed up the day after he met the KGB!

The book has quite a few pages scattered throughout the end of chapters with Ames explanations (rationalizations). More interesting are the many quotes from his coworkers, colleagues, and relatives and High School friends of Ames. The book flows quickly yet contains enough information to make the reader marvel at how inept the CIA comes across. For those conspiracy buffs, you will see in these pages why many such as I rarely believe in vast conspiracies: Murphy’s Law—if anything can go wrong it will, SNAFU, or plain ineptness ruins the ability of conspiracies to connect. So many things went wrong, even after the FBI had surveillance on Ames.

I read this book twice: once at a fast pace to follow the suspense and again slower to absorb and review the patterns and missed opportunities. I asked myself as Dostoevsky did in his work The Brothers Karamazov “Why is such a man alive?” This author answers the question, but the answer does not satisfy. Why does Ames get to live while his words have sent so many to a certain death?

index

I neglected to mention one quite irritating fact: there is no index.

Traitors Ames and Howard

Outstanding review Koba. I would like to comment on your paragraphs:

"But at least 10 were executed directly because of Ames’ betrayal. The families of these men lost their apartments, jobs, reputation. GRU (Military Intel) refused General Polyakov’s request for an operation for his son in New York, so his son died (232). Others like Fedorenko and Tolkachev (59, 152) loved their country, but hated the corrupt communism and this was their one avenue to help change it. Fedorenko’s grandfather had spent 10 years in a prison camp for using newspaper as toilet paper that happened to have Stalin’s picture on it (59)."

I also remember one morning in 1986 or 1987 waking up to an NPR news announcing that the peaceful, adorable author of glasnost and perestroika, President Mikhail Gorbachev has had several convicted Russian spies shot. I did not hear those news repeated by NPR or anybody else! It was as if the news were suddenly embargoed and the door slammed shot about the horrific event. It was not part of the developing event the media wanted to report.

"Still, there were so many easily identifiable reasons for Ames not to have this clearance in that particular arena over so much sensitive intelligence. His verifiable alcohol wrecks, driver’s license suspension, public passing out in Rome on the street all went ignored."

It brings to mind another traitor who should never have been allowed to enter the CIA because of drinking, drug use, and even theft: Edward Lee Howard. The Congressional Committee headed by Senator Frank Church, the CIA Director Stansfield Turner, and the Carter Administration attack upon our intelligence services had so demoralized and thinned the ranks of the agencies, that the Reagan Administration and his CIA Director William Casey were in a hurry to refill the ranks.

That is the only way in my own mind I can comprehend the reason for the recruitment of Edward Lee Howard. But he was fired and became a traitor. There are two books I would recommend about this traitor:

"15. The Spy Who Got Away — The Inside Story of Edward Lee Howard, the CIA Agent Who Betrayed His Country's Secrets and Escaped to Moscow by David Wise. 1988. Well-written and fascinating biography of a traitor.

"16. Ruse — Undercover with FBI Counterintelligence by Robert Eringer. 2007. This book is a hell of a suspenseful ride! A good patriotic hustler who risks his life for country and justice, Eringer goes after traitor Edward Lee Howard in post-communist Russia; assists in the capture of notorious killer Ira Einhorn in France; hoodwinks die-hard communist KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov in Moscow; and plays the Great Game skillfully with Cuban Intelligence in Washington and Havana. Kudos for Mr. Eringer's book, an excellent sequel and denouement for David Wise's The Spy Who Got Away (1988)!"

But Koba, I agree with your assessment about Rick Ames, which was a completely different situation. The only similarity is that we were dealing with two screwed up individuals who bowed to their perverse instincts and turned into traitors to their country. The book by Eringer will not only be instructive but also amusingly entertaining!

Church Committee

Yes, I remember reading about the Church and Pike committee from MH/CHAOS. That author was in CIA and on the receiving end of their anti-CIA campaign. I absolutely will check out those 2 books about Howard. Hoodwinking Kryuchkov alone would make it enjoyable.

It amazes me to read about all of the documented red flags that today would cause one to lose their clearance or at least be moved to a less sensitive area, yet Ames smoothed it over with a few words, and the CIA looked the other way. Admittedly this is only in my experience, which is not in intelligence or CIA. I guess it can be chalked up under "lessons learned." The Hansen case was different, in my opinion, since he was very smart with the emerging technology,most of his coworkers were not, and from the outside Hansen had a good cover. Ames did not. Either way, I am glad they are behind bars for life, although that may not be such a consolation to their victims' families.

MH/CHAOS by Frank Rafko

MHCHAOS
BY Frank Rafalko
Frank Rafalko’s book covers the CIA’s collection of data on the Radical Left and Black Panther Party and other Black Nationalist Groups due to a concern by President Johnson and Nixon over possible foreign manipulation by US enemies such as USSR, China, Cuba, North Vietnam, etc. Having been involved in operation MHCHAOS himself and in response to a New York Times article in 1974, Rockefeller Commission Report, and a series of senate investigations, clearly Rafalko wants to set the record straight.

Both presidents were concerned that the massive anti-American demonstrations and riots were possibly directed by our enemies; after all, the shere number of massive riots and demonstrations seemed to point in that direction. The CIA’s goal was to turn over this information to the FBI to ascertain any foreign exploitation.

With the Cold War and Vietnam War ongoing, the USSR, China, North Vietnam and our other enemies had both a motive and history of foreign interference in other countries. Foreign manipulation by the CPUSA and US spies for USSR—even at high government levels—now well documented and ignored during President Roosevelt’s term led to much damage of the US both nationally and internationally. Remember, Alger Hiss was at Yalta, when Eastern Europe was given to the communists. Moreover, by the late 1960s the FBI had already documented more than 50 missions by the CPUSA to the USSR.

The first third of the book deals with the NY Times article, Rockefeller Commission Report, Senate investigation, which cleared the CIA. The author additionally lays out the structure, specific goals and structure of the investigation. He demonstrates the CIA’s obligation to both protect the US from foreign threats, even within the US as it pertains to foriegn involvement. Naturally most information concerning the domestic terrorism had to be shared with the FBI, which had certain negative consequences occasionally with spies like Hansen. (CIA had one of their own too with Ames). He addressess the CIA's obligation to the president, as well as congress. Naturally, power struggles ensue between the two branches’ of government over who has control of the CIA and the extent of their role over US citizens.

The book is written in a manner emulating reports; hence, it is concise and clear on dates, occurrences, and the five basic questions of who, what, when, where, and how. Consequently, he avoids a common and frustrating situation for readers used to flipping back and forth to try and determine what year to which the author refers. Although Rafalko has an obvious stake in his and the Agency’s side being told, he does a good job separating facts and opinions. Many familiar sources are cited: Mitrkhin, Tretyakov, Kalugin, and Kissinger, etc.

Considering the left’s many documented examples of intentional animosity toward the CIA and other government entities that protect the citizens from our known enemies even while the US was actually at war with them, I was actually wanting more harpooning of the mammoth whale of our leftist media.

The book is important, as it covers the radical Left—SDS, Weather Underground— but mostly the Black Panther Party. Surprisingly, most books covering the radical and often violent left tend to be mostly persuasive books written by the left, often in an effort to justify their violence or activities. Here we have a book written by someone from within the “establishment” who was not a leftist. At times the book slows and may become less interesting when it relates the inner workings of the CIA. Conversely, I had to slow down abruptly to catch up with so much useful information at other times.

Because of the information covering events from a period rarely covered except by the radical left or their sympathizers, I would advise purchasing this book.

Welcome back, Koba!

Excellent & concise review. The book is worth reading.

Your elucidation is worth repeating: "Foreign manipulation by the CPUSA and US spies for USSR—even at high government levels—now well documented and ignored during President Roosevelt’s term led to much damage of the US both nationally and internationally. Remember, Alger Hiss was at Yalta, when Eastern Europe was given to the communists. Moreover, by the late 1960s the FBI had already documented more than 50 missions by the CPUSA to the USSR."

Re. FDR, the truth is he tried to rule as a fascist dictator. He threatened to pack the supreme court with his own judges to get the New Deal through; imprisoned innocent Japanese Americans in internment (concentration) camps; allow the "surprise" bombing of Pearl Harbor to enter World War II; would have sent Americans to be massacred early in World War in Europe between 1943-1944 to save Stalin (Uncle Joe), but was prevented by Churchill; prevented the FBI and J. Edgar Hoover from investigating communist (traitors) in his administration, such as Harry Dexter White and Alger Hiss, etc., stating "many of my friends are communists"!

As far as Hiss, yes, he was one of the most damaging cowardly traitors, but there were also American patriots who risked their lives for the cause of freedom.

A rewarding book I recommend about this, for it was a great victory for us, and it relates your last sentence above is:

"Operation Solo — The FBI's Man in the Kremlin" by John Barron. 1996. This is the story of three American heroes of the Cold War that very few Americans know about! Another of John Barron's masterpieces!

Again welcome back, Koba! MAF

Aztec!

It's been some years since I've read this book, so I'm going to attempt a short review from memory.

Each chapter of Gary Jennings novel Aztec! begins with an apologetic letter to the king of Spain, emploring him not to heed the horrific words of an old indian they are documenting. The main character, an old Mexicatl named Mixtli, recounts his life story and the history of the Mexica (who we now call the Aztecs) for his Spanish captors. The problem is that he refuses to give them a sugar-coated version that is more palatable to European tastes.

Mixtli, which means Dark Cloud in the Mexica language Nahuatl, tells of his boyhood experiences, his growth to manhood, his adventures as a scribe, a warrior, a merchant, an explorer, a colonist, a political leader, a linguist, and eventually as a translator during the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. Throughout his narrative, he weaves important historical events prior to and during the conquest.Aztec

As a boy, Mixtli tells of how he fell in love with is sister, how they plotted to run away and be married, and how their plan eventually failed. His candid account shocks his Spanish captors, but he continues day after day telling his story.

Mixtli tells how he learned the art of picture writing in the learning center of the Alcohua, of his business travels to the Olmeca, the Ben Zaa, and other nations in Cem Anauac or the One World. He describes is journey to find the lost island city of Aztlan, and how he ends up living for a short time with the Raramuri, a strange people to the north who run everywhere and eat an energy-giving and hallucinatory cactus called jipuri. He describes childhood friendships and betrayals, his romance and marriage to a Ben Zaa woman named Zyanya. The horrific death of his daughter during a ceremony to the flayed god, Xipe Totec during a mission he led on behalf of Moctecuzoma, and the bloody revenge he exacts on the priests who sacrificed his beloved daughter to this fertility god.

Mixtli doesn't forget to explain historical events to the Spanish scribes. He tells of how the Mexica came from Aztlan to Tenochtitan at the direction of the hummingbird god Huizilopochitli, and how they new their new island-city home because a prophecy that they would see an eagle on a nopali (or prickly pear) grasping a snake. That image eventually became the symbol that is on the Mexican flag today.

Mixtli also tells the Spanish of the progression of Uey-tlatoanis, or Revered Speakers, that lead the Mexica. He recounts how Tenochtitan formed a Triple-Alliance with their neighboring city states of Texcoco, and Tlacopan, and how that Triple Alliance went on to become the most powerful nation in Cem Anauac.

Mixtli fails to impress the Spanish with tails of how he became independantly wealthy with a close friend and the instructor who taught him as a boy to fight, by trading for Quetzal feathers in the jungles to the south. He also tells of how his sight grew dim as a boy, and the strange crystal that he used as an eyepiece to see clearly.

Mixtli narrates how omens began to happen before the arrival of plumed white men who came in houses that floated. He explains he first encounter with white men and how he added Spanish to his already impressive list of learned languages (including the Ben Zaa language of Loochi, and the Raramari tongue). This sets up his position as the Mexticatl interpreter for Moctecuzoma - the only other indian interpretor beside the one Hernan Cortez used, called La Malinche.

Mixtli is essentially the Forest Gump of the Mexica. Through fate, he somehow ends up as part of almost every major historical event that happens to his people throughout his entire life, and that is what gives him the ability to articulate not only his own history, but the history of his people.

Mixtli's life is filled with extrordinary successes that are always tempered with incredible losses. At key points throught his life, the wind god, Ehecatl appears to him in the form of a man, and eventually it is revealed that his purpose in life is to preserve the history of the Mexica.

In my studies of the Aztecs, I have found nothing that disputes the historical accounts in Gary Jennings' work. Jennings even manages to write native oral legends into his book. He spent 12 years in Mexico working on Aztec! and it shows in his mastery of Nahuatl, his knowledge of pre-columbian Mexican history, and his ability to intervweave factual historical events into the fictional life of Mixtli.

~ 107 degrees in the shade - can you take the heat?

"Aztec" a monumental book!

Years ago, I too read Gary Jenning's monumental book, "Aztec!" Your review brought back fond memories of that reading experience.

I even recall that as I moved closer to the end of the novel, I began putting the book aside for brief periods of time — not because of boredom or the book's length, but because, quite frankly, I didn't want the story to end!

Thank you for your review!

Stupendous Review!

Wow! Fantastic recollection. I also read this book years ago– and loved it. I was in the midst of my "explorations" of the Mayan and Aztec lands with my wife and friends in the 1970s and 80s.

You have absolutely written the magnificent review- and from memory to boot– that I wish I had written years ago!

Indeed, I entirely agree with your summation: "In my studies of the Aztecs, I have found nothing that disputes the historical accounts in Gary Jennings' work. Jennings even manages to write native oral legends into his book. He spent 12 years in Mexico working on Aztec! and it shows in his mastery of Nahuatl, his knowledge of pre-columbian Mexican history, and his ability to interweave factual historical events into the fictional life of Mixtli, 'Dark Cloud'!"

Thank you for posting it! Absolutamente maravilloso, pero es mi tiempo para el merlot! MAF

Thanks!

Gracias! I had lots of fun reading that book. At times I felt like I was Mixtli, and if I ever had a daughter, her name would be Reina Zyaña (Queen Always) after Mixtli's wife Zyanya. I even added quite a few nahuatl words to my lexicon, and can remember a few of them today (occaisionally I even say, "ayya pocheoa!" in lieu of my english or spanish cussin'). I think I read it the first time in the early 90s, and again a few years ago. Sadly, I've never gotten to read the end, because the copy I have is missing it.

Anyway, enjoy your merlot. Es mi tiempo para el gin y tonic!

~ 107...(I think y'all know the rest by now)

Radical Son

The author of Radical Son, David Horowitz, tells his story from early childhood raised in the home of devout communists. And it is a strange world indeed: parents, who travel to the USSR during Stalin’s dictatorship, yet come back alive and still believing in this ideology.

One of the most incredible talents of Horowitz is his ability to recall his particular point of view during the many decades of being an insider to American communism, what most of us would today see as an oxymoron. For today it seems incredible that anyone could have believed in such a totalitarian, antithetical, and disproven socialist system. Horowitz explains how socialists, even in America, believed that “property is theft” (p.161); after all, he grew up believing the Marxist premise that private property and capitalism were what alienated mankind (p.101). Typical of such Marxists though is that they do not give up their own property — neither his parents nor the other communists take this step; rather, they want to take others property and redistribute it.

Another one of the communist’s inherent difficulties is what the author must face: Communism is not motivated by morality but instead by "the ends justify the means." Just as millions were murdered in the USSR by communists there, so would this blueprint for murder be a standard followed by the new proletariat, blacks. Just as the USSR had claimed to be for the industrialized workers (the proletariat), some new class had to be found to be rescued and blacks filled this gap. A distinction here must be drawn between legitimate concerns, such as those echoed by Martin Luther King Jr., who was widely hated by the revolutionaries, and the violent gangsters, criminals, and murderers of the Black Panther Party, who preferred the violence and racial hatred of Malcolm X, Newton, Cleaver, and Davis.

How does a moral man like Horowitz confront the rape, beatings, and even murders by the Black Panther Party, Weather Underground, and other radical white groups? You either accept that any means is alright as long as it moves toward the goal of bringing down the U.S. system of government or deny their culpability, claim the West and U.S. in particular is just as bad, or rewrite history. Sorry, no morals allowed. Just as his father saw USSR terrible conditions firsthand and believed the Russian Civil War that ended nearly a decade earlier was to blame, now the son had to either swallow this same denial or accept any means necessary was the strategy of his leftist radicals. Herein is the ideological conflict of the author.

Just as Communism abandons morality, it is unrealistic. For who wants to abandon their property? Even Jesus said it was the love of money, not money itself that was at issue. Buddha’s teaching that it is our attachment to objects and not the objects themselves that was the problem also. Yet Marx, the ultimate deity here, claims that property in and of itself is the problem. While still young the author noted his parents never abandoned their property. Now did the radicals chronicled here in his book. Ironically, many hippies who did not labor under Marxism did give up or share equally their property and join communes while U.S. Marxists did quite well financially preaching against the very thing they were acquiring. Michael Lerner married a Safeway heiress and Tom Hayden married Jane Fonda. Horowitz comes to see how “without private property there was no freedom.”(p.391)

The premise that all have equal talents with equal rewards is also unrealistic, as the author points out in a visit to Poland. "The doctor with whom we stayed during our visit was earning $17 a month, a salary which had been deliberately set at less than the $20-a-month average assigned to Polish workers. She lacked even a telephone. It had apparently never occurred to the socialist planners that this effort at establishing 'social justice' might actually disadvantage the workers who needed the doctor’s services and might benefit if she had a phone.”(p.389)

For one today to gain a perspective of the violence of the 1960s and 1970s by Black Panthers, Weather Underground, SLA and other groups, one must understand what the author demonstrates: a certain radical element wanted to overthrow the U.S. system by any means necessary, including terrorism, bank robberies, and cop killings. Many of the Black Panthers were convicts, murderers, gangsters, drug dealers. Many of the radical whites were complete traitors who traveled to countries that were then enemies of the U.S. and actively aided our enemies, even meeting with Viet Cong who held our POWS. Many of these same white radicals committed bombings, were killed while making bombs to use on civilians, and used robbery to finance their goals. Ending Vietnam was not the goal, the author points out of these radicals; it was the means of U.S. overthrow.

Where did these radicals go? Many are dead. Some died in shoot outs with police; others died in prison, although not nearly so many as one would rightfully expect. Many teach in our universities, the same ones that once sought to burn down or rioted against 'repressive' institutions. As Horowitz notes: “In our attacks on the 'repressive' institutions of the university culture, we were pushing largely on open doors.”(p.109) Alarmingly for many, their goal has not changed only their means. Horowitz names many names, which is not difficult since he knew personally many of them from his radical days.

How has the Left come to grips with its crimes today? Rewriting history in the universities and media is one dominant means. Either deny it happened; blame the police, the system, McCarthy; or do as David Horowitz has done: accept responsibility and admit you were wrong. Sadly, so few could accomplish what the author has done: “The left could not look inward, and it could not look back.”(p.302)

Rare indeed is the man who can review his life and see the error to which he was so deeply committed. U.S. communists and Marxists of the Sixties and Seventies who recognize their mistake and accept responsibility do not exist to my knowledge, except for David Horowitz.

Destructive U.S. Radicals of the 1960s and 70s!

Hi Koba,

Most radicals, including Joan Baez and Jane Fonda remain largely unrepentant; most others, like Bill Ayers, Bernadine Dohrn, Mark Rudd, Naomi Jaffe, etc., remain not only fully unrepentant but proud of their radicalism and even the urban terrorism they practiced during the 1960s and 70s!

Radical Son is an excellent expose of their destructive activities, as is Horowitz's other related and appropriately named book, Destructive Generation — Second Thoughts About the '60s (by Peter Collier and David Horowitz; 1989).

I remember, Ayers's reply to a journalist in an 2001 interview on the eve of 9-11: "Guilty as hell, free as a bird!"

Excellent analysis, and as always, Koba, welcome back!

The Age of Reagan by Steven f. Hayward

The Age of Reagan by Steven Hayward is an important work, not just in understanding America’s most popular president in the last 50 or 100 years, but in understanding the decade of the 1980s and the end of The Cold War. Hayward covers Reagan mostly favorably, yet he does not shirk from also pointing out the inevitable mistakes that any leader, even Reagan, would make.

The book is over 600 pages, not including notes, Bibliography, and the index. It is divided into two parts, thirteen chapters, and the obligatory prologue and epilogue. Even within the chapters the reader encounters certain topics and in a few pages moves on to the next one. Hence the book can be read over a longer period of time if the reader wants or needs this time to absorb the information, as this reader does.

There is much to absorb here. The horrible state of the American economy, military, pride, and even future is covered. Even for those of us who lived through Nixon, Carter, gas lines at the pumps, violent revolutionaries at universities, and the end of Vietnam can benefit from a reevaluation of this timeframe. The US was an incredible low point far worse than today.

Reagan took over a country who had finished Vietnam without accomplishing its goal of halting communism. Then came Nixon’s resignation and subsequent pardon by Ford. Next were four disastrous Carter years t wherein economic problems increased and the US remained inept or powerless to free hostages in Iran for over a year. Interest rates were about 19% in December 1980. Unemployment in 1980 had hit 8.9% and climbed to 10.8% (higher than our current recession). Inflation had reached 14% by Reagan’s first year in office. This is the economic world that President Reagan inherited.

The book chronicles well the economic woes and Reagan’s priority of fixing the economy, most of which he had done by 1983. It also shows his struggle to lower taxes, which he did in 1986 by cutting the highest individual rate from 50% to 28%.

The book also shows the battle President Reagan had in decreasing government. “Government is not the solution to our problem. Government is the problem.” His statement sounds much like George Washington’s quote: "Government is not reason. It’s force. Like fire, it is a dangerous servant of a fearful master” (Walter 351) from his book Ruby Ridge. Reagan's influence is still felt today in this battle of those socialists who believe government is the answer to every problem such as our healthcare to the theory of man-made global warming and those, like Reagan, who see the government as the problem, like with Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae who played a hughe role in the economic meltdown in housing market prices.

Government did increase under Reagan, as did the US debt, although nothing in comparison to the last decade. Perhaps it was inevitable with the president’s battle to build up the US military, reduce taxes, and continue the economic growth. That is beyond this author’s meager economic understanding. Yet one could reasonably argue that the reduction in US deficit –not debt since that never was reduced during Clinton—in the 1990s could only occur because the US had won the Cold War and no longer NEEDED to spend so much on its military. So Clinton cutting back on the US military forces—some would argue far too much—was only because of President Reagan’s success.

Most of the world and some of the US remembers how successful President Reagan was in his biggest battle of all: ending communism. Hayward reiterates how this message was communicated by Reagan to the dismay and horror of liberals in the Republican as well as the Democrat Congress and the liberal, and sometimes hostile, media. Yet there is often praise from this same media, as with Time Magazine.

“We win. They lose.” This is the philosophy of President Reagan. While this quote of Reagan would likely not come as a surprise to most who lived through this era, the fact that this determination to defeat “the evil empire” was quite unusual might. Most all presidents since the 1950s, with the possible exception of Kennedy, accepted détente. In essence we accepted that the communist régime that had enslaved, tortured, and murdered millions of its own and of eastern European countries, which it now claimed power over through its puppet communist leaders, could just continue its demonic course. Not Reagan. He was determined to end this evil. He was aided by the Polish Pope, Labor movement under Lech Walesa, the USSR failure in Afghanistan—thanks largely to US aid of stinger missiles to Afghan resistance, and Gorbachev, a USSR head of state who refused to shoot, torture, or ship off to gulags any who did not submit to USSR tyranny.

While Gorbachev was a far cry from Lenin, Stalin, or Brezhnev, he certainly did not want the USSR to break up. He merely knew what the US intelligence was so oblivious to: that the USSR could not continue on its current course. Consumer goods were in a deplorable shape, the Afghan War was going terrible, yet the Soviets were still loaning countries like Nicaragua, Vietnam, and Angola $3 billion as late as 1986. President Reagan continually pressed Gorbachev on human rights, which paid off in the release of Jews in 1986.

Although President Reagan was repeatedly maligned by the press, history has proven him to be a most brilliant and determined adversary to the evil of communism. He understood the basic flaw of the Soviets: that they could never admit the US way of life was superior, so they had to keep up with our military. This had become impossible by the 1908s, unless one were willing to starve millions as Stalin had in the Ukraine. Gorbachev was no Stalin, and Reagan knew it, just as he knew that the socialist state could not compete with free enterprise of the USSR.

SDI, which even Prime Minister Thatcher was initially against, had many opponents—many even within the Republican Party abd the president's own cabinet. Most of the media was against it and the Democrats renamed it “Star Wars”, which the media repeated like good lapdogs instead of intelligent journalists. That Reagan had such a personal belief in his philosophy to face such overwhelming odds speaks much of his character and astute understanding of communism’s fatal flaw.

Many events are covered in the book from the assassination attempt by Hinckley to the conferences over nuclear disarmament, from Chernobyl to the Challenger explosion, from the largest welfare reform in 50 years to the 1986 Tax Reform Act.

Reagan brought the US back from economic ruin and national despair and built up our military, our pride, and helped defeat the horror that was communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Despite the constant barrage of virulent criticism and mockery from the media—President Reagan was immensely popular with the people. His victory in his second term of office in 1984 is the highest electoral votes ever. He left office with a 63% approval rating, higher than any president since WWII. He did it by doing the unthinkable: by defeating our enemy—Communism—using his political acumen and by getting our economy under control with tax decreases, which went against the common beliefs of many Republicans and Democrats too. In fact the book chronicles Reagan’s many battles were against fellow Republicans like Senator Dole, as well as House Speaker Tip O’Neill.

What the reader is left with is how history has proven President Reagan so right.

Reagan's legacy

Koba, your excellent review of this book is nostalgic: "The book chronicles well the economic woes and Reagan’s priority of fixing the economy, most of which he had done by 1983. It also shows his struggle to lower taxes, which he did in 1986 by cutting the highest individual rate from 50% to 28%." Where are today's GOP conservative leaders needed to pick up the mantle of Reagan's legacy?

I also agree, Koba, with your assessment: "Reagan's influence is still felt today in this battle of those socialists who believe government is the answer to every problem such as our healthcare to the theory of man-made global warming and those, like Reagan, who see the government as the problem, like with Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae who played a huge role in the economic meltdown in housing market prices."

And yes Reagan brought down the evil empire too! MAF

Bringing Down America by Larry Grathwohl

In his book Bringing Down America, Larry Grathwohl relates his firsthand account of infiltrating the violent, Marxist group known as Weathermen. Larry was in many ways, an everyman—just a Vietnam veteran returned from the war and working part time at an unfulfilling job. What sets him apart is his choice to live as a Weatherman in order to help eliminate this terrorist organization that advocated the overthrow of the US while actively pursuing that goal with bombings, robberies, thefts, and murders. He tells his story to Frank Reagan coauthor here in this second edition; hence giving the reader a rare look inside of a terrorism group largely ignored, glossed over, misrepresented, or even justified today.

Larry’s story chronicles his one year inside the group. He is not an FBI agent; in fact, he is not even paid for quite some time by them, despite the great danger to himself. As he relates, Weathermen talk openly of eliminating anyone who is suspected of betrayal, and this organization has murdered. Larry eventually lost his part-time job, and he did get money for his reports to the FBI on the activities and whereabouts of this group.

Sprinkled throughout the book are bank robberies, kidnappings, and murders by groups like SLA, Black Guerillas, as well as the Weathermen. There were so many bombings by various terrorists groups, and often the terrorists responsible are not identified- a nearly impossible task due to the sheer number of bombings and lack of sources within the many terrorist organizations.

Outlined here are Weathermen orders from the top Weather Bureau from people like Ayers to collectives who then sent orders to “focals” or “action groups” that carried out the bombings. Larry eventually makes it to one of these “focals,” and he gives several first-hand accounts of the actual planning, surveillance, and even the attempted bombings, which are thwarted only due to his reports to the FBI.

Amazingly, many of the leaders of this violent terrorist organization like William Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, Eleanor Raskin, Jeff Jones are now prominent members of education, lawyers, or respected authors, despite their unrepentant hatred for America then and now. Some have ties to this administration, like Ayers and Jeff Jones. Although 13 members of the group were indicted by a Grand Jury for the attempted bombing of a Detroit Police Officers Association Building, the charges were mysteriously dropped in October 1973.

Grathwohl also does an excellent job listing many of the now obscure publications from the radicals. He also lists a plethora of Weathermen’s names, roles, places, organization, and even association with known enemies of the US.

Like Vladimir Lenin, these avowed communist revolutionaries actively advocated and sought the destruction of not only their society but a world-wide revolution of socialism. People are killed to combat perceived racism or to destroy capitalism and force socialism. Like Stalin, totalitarianism was a sought after goal: even monogamous relationships were not allowed for a time and they were always subservient to the all-powerful collective. Followers lived in communes where behavior was dictated, self-criticism before the group was expected, and routine purges routinely were instituted.

Marriages were a means to acquire wealth from parents for the organization—at least in one example given—and never as any commitment to each other or God. The movement was god, and terror was their means. Just as Stalin had replaced the Russian icons with his picture in the USSR, so had the communists here replaced God and our founding fathers with Mao, Ho Chi Mein, and especially Che Guevara.

Many today try to pretend this communist terrorist organization was merely a protest group against the Vietnam War. Their goal of the destruction of the US system, and their means of murder, bombings, robberies, etc. proved this was not the case. They sought violent revolution to “bring down America,” not peaceful, legal demonstrations to end a war. Moreover, the author asserts that some of the Weathermen met, plotted, and even trained with North Vietnamese, Cubans, Cambodians, IRA, Quebec Liberation Front, and sought out the Arab terrorists El Fatah.

One of the primary reasons for the book’s importance today: a source of information from the only known deep penetration of this Marxist terrorist organization. They sought the overthrow of a capitalistic government in favor of a totalitarian socialism--one through violent means outside the system. Today, some of these same people seek the same goal—-and have made advances toward it—-by working within the system, although not necessarily within the Constitution.